Darwinism News

A modest proposal re peer reviewed papers

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Further to “Remember that Fate of Darwinism paper? Here’s what it says on Dawkins’ selfish gene …” and thinking about the increase in peer-reviewed ID-friendly papers, how about this:

Someone should compile a list of peer-reviewed papers in respected journals in recent years that are not good news for Darwinism.

First few titles suggested are most welcome.

21 Replies to “A modest proposal re peer reviewed papers

  1. 1

    First define “Darwinism”.

    Because you wouldn’t want a list that is bad news for a straw man, would you? The thing that, thanks to Joe, what I now think of as “Garwinism”.

    😉

  2. 2
    Petrushka says:

    It can go on the shelf next to the list of papers that are bad news for superstring theory and which therefor invalidate all of physics.

  3. 3
    bornagain77 says:

    ‘The whole randomness thing, that’s like completely against all of physics’
    Jake Barnett – Math Prodigy

    Quote is at 12:00 minute mark of this video;

    Jake: Math prodigy proud of his autism – 60 Minutes – CBS News – video
    http://www.cbsnews.com/video/w.....e1.channel

  4. 4
    Barb says:

    David Depew and Bruce Weber’s article “The Fate of Darwinism: Evolution After the Modern Synthesis” is one such paper.

    Others include: Stephen C. Meyer, “The Origin of Biological Information and the Higher Taxonomic Categories,” Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 117:213-239, 2004; Joseph A. Kuhn, “Dissecting Darwinism,” Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings 25(1):41-47, 2012; and Charles Stewart Roberts, “Comments on Darwinism,” Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings 25(1):48, 2012.

  5. 5
    Axel says:

    You mean the conjectures that don’t even reach a level that could be said to be wrong, Petruschka? You have a vicious tongue. Unfortunately, it’s self-lacerating.

  6. 6

    Come on guys!

    Is it “Darwinism” as in “What Darwin proposed”? In which case you can put almost the entire output of evolutionary biology.

    Or is it “Darwinism” as in the atheist materialistic ideology that some people here consider a threat to civilisation? In which case you will find virtually nothing, as science simply does not deal with the question as to whether God exists or whether materialism can explain the universe.

    Or is it “Darwinism” as in common descent? Don’t think you’ll find much that threatens the hypothesis of common decent.

    Or is it “Darwinism” as in: populations adapt through heritable variance in reproductive success? Not much hope of much literature against that one either, as it’s been repeatedly observed.

    Or is it “Darwinism” as in: not all genetic variants are the result of copying infidelity? Plenty of those out there.

    Or is it “Darwinism” as in: some major variants were the result of symbiosis, not sequence changes? Well, thanks to Margulis, most evolutionary scientists think that’s rather a good idea.

    Or is it “Darwinism” as in: evolvability itself evolves, with populations with genomes that can re-engineer themselves surviving the threat of extinction better than those without such genomes? Well, that looks pretty interesting, and Shapiro’s ideas are obviously worth a second look.

    Or what is it? Because what it is defined as will have a huge impact on what papers are supposed to challenge it.

    Seriously: know your enemy 🙂 If you are an IDist, make sure you know which aspect of modern evolutionary theory (or modern materialistic ideology) you think is wrong, what would refute it, and what the implications of that would be for ID.

    Or just post exciting cutting edge papers about evolutionary science! That would be cool 🙂

  7. 7
    DrREC says:

    I might suggest we limit this study to papers published in Journals listed in major databases, with an impact factor of greater than 1 (a paper is likely to be cited by at least 1 other paper).

    Sadly, this eliminate’s Barb’s list, except Depew and Weber’s article, which I have posted excerpts of here.

  8. 8
    bornagain77 says:

    First-Ever Blueprint of ‘Minimal Cell’ Is More Complex Than Expected – Nov. 2009
    Excerpt: A network of research groups,, approached the bacterium at three different levels. One team of scientists described M. pneumoniae’s transcriptome, identifying all the RNA molecules, or transcripts, produced from its DNA, under various environmental conditions. Another defined all the metabolic reactions that occurred in it, collectively known as its metabolome, under the same conditions. A third team identified every multi-protein complex the bacterium produced, thus characterising its proteome organisation.
    “At all three levels, we found M. pneumoniae was more complex than we expected,”
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....173027.htm

    Mutations : when benefits level off – June 2011 – (Lenski’s e-coli after 50,000 generations)
    Excerpt: After having identified the first five beneficial mutations combined successively and spontaneously in the bacterial population, the scientists generated, from the ancestral bacterial strain, 32 mutant strains exhibiting all of the possible combinations of each of these five mutations. They then noted that the benefit linked to the simultaneous presence of five mutations was less than the sum of the individual benefits conferred by each mutation individually.
    http://www2.cnrs.fr/en/1867.htm?theme1=7

    Experimental Evolution in Fruit Flies (35 years of trying to force fruit flies to evolve in the laboratory fails, spectacularly) – October 2010
    Excerpt: “Despite decades of sustained selection in relatively small, sexually reproducing laboratory populations, selection did not lead to the fixation of newly arising unconditionally advantageous alleles.,,, “This research really upends the dominant paradigm about how species evolve,” said ecology and evolutionary biology professor Anthony Long, the primary investigator.
    http://www.arn.org/blogs/index.....ruit_flies

    Most Detailed Annotation of Fruit-Fly Genome Points Way to Understanding All Organisms’ Genomes – December 2010
    Excerpt: “We also found an order-of-magnitude increase in the ways that genes are spliced and edited to produce alternate forms of known proteins, thus significantly increasing the complexity of the proteome.”,,, Despite the scrutiny to which the Drosophila genome has been subjected, the researchers found new or altered exons or splice forms in almost three-quarters of Drosophila’s previously annotated genes,,,
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....131131.htm

    Cells Are Like Robust Computational Systems, – June 2009
    Excerpt: Gene regulatory networks in cell nuclei are similar to cloud computing networks, such as Google or Yahoo!, researchers report today in the online journal Molecular Systems Biology. The similarity is that each system keeps working despite the failure of individual components, whether they are master genes or computer processors. ,,,,”We now have reason to think of cells as robust computational devices, employing redundancy in the same way that enables large computing systems, such as Amazon, to keep operating despite the fact that servers routinely fail.”
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....103205.htm

    The Complexity of Gene Expression, Protein Interaction, and Cell Differentiation – Jill Adams, Ph.D. – 2008
    Excerpt: it seems that a single protein can have dozens, if not hundreds, of different interactions,,, In a commentary that accompanied Stumpf’s article, Luis Nunes Amaral (2008) wrote, “These numbers provide a sobering view of where we stand in our cataloging of the human interactome. At present, we have identified less than 0.3% of all estimated interactions among human proteins. We are indeed at the dawn of systems biology.”
    http://www.nature.com/scitable.....tion-34575

    Nanoelectronic Transistor Combined With Biological Machine Could Lead To Better Electronics: – Aug. 2009
    Excerpt: While modern communication devices rely on electric fields and currents to carry the flow of information, biological systems are much more complex. They use an arsenal of membrane receptors, channels and pumps to control signal transduction that is unmatched by even the most powerful computers.
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....091834.htm

    Researchers Crack ‘Splicing Code,’ Solve a Mystery Underlying Biological Complexity – May 2010
    Excerpt: This code contains the biological rules that are used to govern how separate parts of a genetic message copied from a gene can be spliced together in different ways to produce different genetic messages (messenger RNAs). “For example, three neurexin genes can generate over 3,000 genetic messages that help control the wiring of the brain,,
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....133252.htm

    Experimental Evolution of Gene Duplicates in a Bacterial Plasmid Model
    Excerpt: In a striking contradiction to our model, no such conditions were found. The fitness cost of carrying both plasmids increased dramatically as antibiotic levels were raised, and either the wild-type plasmid was lost or the cells did not grow. This study highlights the importance of the cost of duplicate genes and the quantitative nature of the tradeoff in the evolution of gene duplication through functional divergence.
    http://www.springerlink.com/co.....4014664w8/

    Concluding statement of the ENCODE study:
    “we have also encountered a remarkable excess of experimentally identified functional elements lacking evolutionary constraint, and these cannot be dismissed for technical reasons. This is perhaps the biggest surprise of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project, and suggests that we take a more ‘neutral’ view of many of the functions conferred by the genome.”
    http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Re.....e05874.pdf

    etc.. etc.. etc.. etc.. etc.. etc…

  9. 9
    bornagain77 says:

    First-Ever Blueprint of ‘Minimal Cell’ Is More Complex Than Expected – Nov. 2009
    Excerpt: A network of research groups,, approached the bacterium at three different levels. One team of scientists described M. pneumoniae’s transcriptome, identifying all the RNA molecules, or transcripts, produced from its DNA, under various environmental conditions. Another defined all the metabolic reactions that occurred in it, collectively known as its metabolome, under the same conditions. A third team identified every multi-protein complex the bacterium produced, thus characterising its proteome organisation.
    “At all three levels, we found M. pneumoniae was more complex than we expected,”
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....173027.htm

    Mutations : when benefits level off – June 2011 – (Lenski’s e-coli after 50,000 generations)
    Excerpt: After having identified the first five beneficial mutations combined successively and spontaneously in the bacterial population, the scientists generated, from the ancestral bacterial strain, 32 mutant strains exhibiting all of the possible combinations of each of these five mutations. They then noted that the benefit linked to the simultaneous presence of five mutations was less than the sum of the individual benefits conferred by each mutation individually.
    http://www2.cnrs.fr/en/1867.htm?theme1=7

    Experimental Evolution in Fruit Flies (35 years of trying to force fruit flies to evolve in the laboratory fails, spectacularly) – October 2010
    Excerpt: “Despite decades of sustained selection in relatively small, sexually reproducing laboratory populations, selection did not lead to the fixation of newly arising unconditionally advantageous alleles.,,, “This research really upends the dominant paradigm about how species evolve,” said ecology and evolutionary biology professor Anthony Long, the primary investigator.
    http://www.arn.org/blogs/index.....ruit_flies

    Most Detailed Annotation of Fruit-Fly Genome Points Way to Understanding All Organisms’ Genomes – December 2010
    Excerpt: “We also found an order-of-magnitude increase in the ways that genes are spliced and edited to produce alternate forms of known proteins, thus significantly increasing the complexity of the proteome.”,,, Despite the scrutiny to which the Drosophila genome has been subjected, the researchers found new or altered exons or splice forms in almost three-quarters of Drosophila’s previously annotated genes,,,
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....131131.htm

    Cells Are Like Robust Computational Systems, – June 2009
    Excerpt: Gene regulatory networks in cell nuclei are similar to cloud computing networks, such as Google or Yahoo!, researchers report today in the online journal Molecular Systems Biology. The similarity is that each system keeps working despite the failure of individual components, whether they are master genes or computer processors. ,,,,”We now have reason to think of cells as robust computational devices, employing redundancy in the same way that enables large computing systems, such as Amazon, to keep operating despite the fact that servers routinely fail.”
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....103205.htm

    The Complexity of Gene Expression, Protein Interaction, and Cell Differentiation – Jill Adams, Ph.D. – 2008
    Excerpt: it seems that a single protein can have dozens, if not hundreds, of different interactions,,, In a commentary that accompanied Stumpf’s article, Luis Nunes Amaral (2008) wrote, “These numbers provide a sobering view of where we stand in our cataloging of the human interactome. At present, we have identified less than 0.3% of all estimated interactions among human proteins. We are indeed at the dawn of systems biology.”
    http://www.nature.com/scitable.....tion-34575

    Nanoelectronic Transistor Combined With Biological Machine Could Lead To Better Electronics: – Aug. 2009
    Excerpt: While modern communication devices rely on electric fields and currents to carry the flow of information, biological systems are much more complex. They use an arsenal of membrane receptors, channels and pumps to control signal transduction that is unmatched by even the most powerful computers.
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....091834.htm

    Researchers Crack ‘Splicing Code,’ Solve a Mystery Underlying Biological Complexity – May 2010
    Excerpt: This code contains the biological rules that are used to govern how separate parts of a genetic message copied from a gene can be spliced together in different ways to produce different genetic messages (messenger RNAs). “For example, three neurexin genes can generate over 3,000 genetic messages that help control the wiring of the brain,,
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....133252.htm

    Experimental Evolution of Gene Duplicates in a Bacterial Plasmid Model
    Excerpt: In a striking contradiction to our model, no such conditions were found. The fitness cost of carrying both plasmids increased dramatically as antibiotic levels were raised, and either the wild-type plasmid was lost or the cells did not grow. This study highlights the importance of the cost of duplicate genes and the quantitative nature of the tradeoff in the evolution of gene duplication through functional divergence.
    http://www.springerlink.com/co.....4014664w8/

    etc.. etc.. etc.. etc.. etc.. etc…

  10. 10
    bornagain77 says:

    Concluding statement of the ENCODE study:
    “we have also encountered a remarkable excess of experimentally identified functional elements lacking evolutionary constraint, and these cannot be dismissed for technical reasons. This is perhaps the biggest surprise of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project, and suggests that we take a more ‘neutral’ view of many of the functions conferred by the genome.”
    http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Re.....e05874.pdf

    Insight into cells could lead to new approach to medicines
    Excerpt: Scientists expected to find simple links between individual proteins but were surprised to find that proteins were inter-connected in a complex web. Dr Victor Neduva, of the University of Edinburgh, who took part in the study, said: “Our studies have revealed an intricate network of proteins within cells that is much more complex than we previously thought.
    http://www.physorg.com/news196402353.html

    Non-coding RNAs and eukaryotic evolution – a personal view – John Mattick – May 2010
    Excerpt: “But you certainly need to have a more complex regulatory framework to get to a more complex organism, and the astounding thing is that the only thing that does scale with complexity – because the number of genes does not – is the extent of the non-protein-coding genome.”
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pm.....MC2905358/

    Surgical removal of the tonsils and appendix associated with risk of early heart attack – June 2011
    Excerpt: The surgical removal of the appendix and tonsils before the age of 20 was associated with an increased risk of premature heart attack in a large population study performed in Sweden. Tonsillectomy increased the risk by 44% (hazard ratio 1.44) and appendectomy by 33% (HR 1.33). The risk increases were just statistically significant, and were even higher when the tonsils and appendix were both removed.
    http://medicalxpress.com/news/.....html#share

    The Fate of Darwinism: Evolution After the Modern Synthesis – January 2012
    Excerpt: We trace the history of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, and of genetic Darwinism generally, with a view to showing why, even in its current versions, it can no longer serve as a general framework for evolutionary theory. The main reason is empirical. Genetical Darwinism cannot accommodate the role of development (and of genes in development) in many evolutionary processes.
    http://www.springerlink.com/co.....03g3t7002/

    The face of a frog: Time-lapse video reveals never-before-seen bioelectric pattern – July 2011
    Excerpt: For the first time, Tufts University biologists have reported that bioelectrical signals are necessary for normal head and facial formation in an organism and have captured that process in a time-lapse video that reveals never-before-seen patterns of visible bioelectrical signals outlining where eyes, nose, mouth, and other features will appear in an embryonic tadpole.,,, “When a frog embryo is just developing, before it gets a face, a pattern for that face lights up on the surface of the embryo,”,,, “We believe this is the first time such patterning has been reported for an entire structure, not just for a single organ. I would never have predicted anything like it. It’s a jaw dropper.”,,,
    http://www.physorg.com/news/20.....-seen.html

    “Live memory” of the cell, the other hereditary memory of living systems – 2005
    Excerpt: To understand this notion of “live memory”, its role and interactions with DNA must be resituated; indeed, operational information belongs as much to the cell body and to its cytoplasmic regulatory protein components and other endogenous or exogenous ligands as it does to the DNA database. We will see in Section 2, using examples from recent experiments in biology, the principal roles of “live memory” in relation to the four aspects of cellular identity, memory of form, hereditary transmission and also working memory.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15888340

    Chimps are not like humans – May 2004
    Excerpt: the International Chimpanzee Chromosome 22 Consortium reports that 83% of chimpanzee chromosome 22 proteins are different from their human counterparts,,, The results reported this week showed that “83% of the genes have changed between the human and the chimpanzee—only 17% are identical—so that means that the impression that comes from the 1.2% [sequence] difference is [misleading]. In the case of protein structures, it has a big effect,” Sakaki said.
    http://cmbi.bjmu.edu.cn/news/0405/119.htm

    Peer-Reviewed Paper in Medical Journal Challenges Evolutionary Science and Inaccurate Evolution-Education – Casey Luskin – January, 2012
    Excerpt: DNA homology between ape and man has been reported to be 96% when considering only the current protein-mapping sequences, which represent only 2% of the total genome. However, the actual similarity of the DNA is approximately 70% to 75% when considering the full genome, including the previously presumed “junk DNA,” which has now been demonstrated to code for supporting elements in transcription or expression. The 25% difference represents almost 35 million single nucleotide changes and 5 million insertions or deletions.
    http://www.evolutionnews.org/2.....55221.html

    etc.. etc.. etc.. etc.. etc.. etc..

  11. 11
    bornagain77 says:

    Since this could go on and on, just 3 more:

    Chimps are not like humans – May 2004
    Excerpt: the International Chimpanzee Chromosome 22 Consortium reports that 83% of chimpanzee chromosome 22 proteins are different from their human counterparts,,, The results reported this week showed that “83% of the genes have changed between the human and the chimpanzee—only 17% are identical—so that means that the impression that comes from the 1.2% [sequence] difference is [misleading]. In the case of protein structures, it has a big effect,” Sakaki said.
    http://cmbi.bjmu.edu.cn/news/0405/119.htm

    The changing face of genus Homo – Wood; Collard
    Excerpt: the current criteria for identifying species of Homo are difficult, if not impossible, to operate using paleoanthropological evidence. We discuss alternative, verifiable, criteria, and show that when these new criteria are applied to Homo, two species, Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, fail to meet them.
    http://www3.interscience.wiley.....0/abstract

    Evolution of the Genus Homo – Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences – Tattersall, Schwartz, May 2009
    Excerpt: “Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5–1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis.”
    http://arjournals.annualreview.....208.100202

  12. 12
    bornagain77 says:

    ‘Coincidentally’, just up at ENV:

    Surveying Peer-Reviewed Pro-Intelligent Design Papers by Wolf-Ekkehard Lönnig
    http://www.evolutionnews.org/2.....55911.html

  13. 13
    johnnyb says:

    “Or just post exciting cutting edge papers about evolutionary science”

    We do! People complain anyway.

    “First define “Darwinism”.”

    Simple – the idea that natural selection is the primary force which created the diversity of life that we find today. Hence, “On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection“.

  14. 14
    eigenstate says:

    BA77,

    You are certainly aware that the rest of us reading and posting with browsers also have powerful search engines just a click away, right? The stuff you are posting is just noise, because you are lazy about the content. Linking to scholarly articles is GREAT, but just the links themselves aren’t helpful.

    It takes work to actually comment on and integrate the content of the article in a relevant way. Can I challenge you to actually show some consideration for your readers here, both sympathizers and critics, by putting a little effort into understanding, applying and developing the ideas and analysis in those papers?

    That would be cool. From what little of that you’ve done before, that I’ve seen, it’s been a bit of a trainwreck. But I think it can work if you just abandon spam modes, and take a single question and integrated the contents of just one of these articles into the conversation.

    That really would be a noble thing to provide for the community here!

  15. 15

    You forgot heritable variance.

    Still, nice to see “Darwinism” defined as a theory not as an ideology.

  16. 16
    wateron1 says:

    BA I enjoy reading what you put up. I hope I don’t sound foolish but was wondering if you don’t mind, giving me some counter arguments on the below assertions supporting macro evolutionary changes below in quotes, if not, don’t worry about it.

    “”Science uses logic, & part of that is logical induction based on the consistent evidence from independent lines which adhere to & are consistent w/ the same model.
    Regrettably we cannot re-create the tectonics movement in labs. We can however observe the movements & induce based on the rates where the plates were in the past & we find it explains the geo-stratigraphy of flora & fauna quite well! As you may know, science uses indirect observations as part of the tools for understanding. Just like in a process of crime scene investigation, a person needn’t be around to directly witness an event to inductively & logically conclude what had occurred if they have ample consistent evidence. This is the very basis for our court system. No assumptions, no leaps of anything, it’s logic & reasoning (in that Micro + time = Macro) .
    I would guess that such logic & reason aren’t sufficient for you, as you would prefer ‘revealed knowledge’ where we cannot even test such a statement as ‘god created x’ either, but that doesn’t bother you from taking it as is””

  17. 17
    bornagain77 says:

    eigenstate, suggestion duly filed in round file!

  18. 18
    bornagain77 says:

    Just for you eigenstate;

    Antibiotic resistance is ancient – September 2011
    http://www.nature.com/nature/j.....E-20110922

    A Cambrian Peak in Morphological Variation Within Trilobite Species; Webster
    Excerpt: The distribution of polymorphic traits in cladistic character-taxon matrices reveals that the frequency and extent of morphological variation in 982 trilobite species are greatest early in the evolution of the group: Stratigraphically old and/or phylogenetically basal taxa are significantly more variable than younger and/or more derived taxa.
    http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/.....7/5837/499

    Quantum no-hiding theorem experimentally confirmed for first time
    Excerpt: In the classical world, information can be copied and deleted at will. In the quantum world, however, the conservation of quantum information means that information cannot be created nor destroyed. This concept stems from two fundamental theorems of quantum mechanics: the no-cloning theorem and the no-deleting theorem. A third and related theorem, called the no-hiding theorem, addresses information loss in the quantum world. According to the no-hiding theorem, if information is missing from one system (which may happen when the system interacts with the environment), then the information is simply residing somewhere else in the Universe; in other words, the missing information cannot be hidden in the correlations between a system and its environment. (This experiment provides experimental proof that the teleportation of quantum information in this universe must be complete and instantaneous.)
    http://www.physorg.com/news/20.....tally.html

    Physicists describe method to observe timelike entanglement – January 2011
    Excerpt: In “ordinary” quantum entanglement, two particles possess properties that are inherently linked with each other, even though the particles may be spatially separated by a large distance. Now, physicists S. Jay Olson and Timothy C. Ralph from the University of Queensland have shown that it’s possible to create entanglement between regions of spacetime that are separated in time but not in space, and then to convert the timelike entanglement into normal spacelike entanglement. They also discuss the possibility of using this timelike entanglement from the quantum vacuum for a process they call “teleportation in time.” “To me, the exciting aspect of this result (that entanglement exists between the future and past) is that it is quite a general property of nature and opens the door to new creativity, since we know that entanglement can be viewed as a resource for quantum technology,” Olson told PhysOrg.com.
    http://www.physorg.com/news/20.....ement.html

    Scientists show how to erase information without using energy – January 2011
    Excerpt: Until now, scientists have thought that the process of erasing information requires energy. But a new study shows that, theoretically, information can be erased without using any energy at all. Instead, the cost of erasure can be paid in terms of another conserved quantity, such as spin angular momentum.,,, “Landauer said that information is physical because it takes energy to erase it. We are saying that the reason it is physical has a broader context than that.”, Vaccaro explained.
    http://www.physorg.com/news/20.....nergy.html

    Quantum knowledge cools computers: New understanding of entropy – June 2011
    Excerpt: No heat, even a cooling effect;
    In the case of perfect classical knowledge of a computer memory (zero entropy), deletion of the data requires in theory no energy at all. The researchers prove that “more than complete knowledge” from quantum entanglement with the memory (negative entropy) leads to deletion of the data being accompanied by removal of heat from the computer and its release as usable energy. This is the physical meaning of negative entropy.
    Renner emphasizes, however, “This doesn’t mean that we can develop a perpetual motion machine.” The data can only be deleted once, so there is no possibility to continue to generate energy. The process also destroys the entanglement, and it would take an input of energy to reset the system to its starting state. The equations are consistent with what’s known as the second law of thermodynamics: the idea that the entropy of the universe can never decrease. Vedral says “We’re working on the edge of the second law. If you go any further, you will break it.”
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....134300.htm

    Inflationary spacetimes are not past-complete – Borde-Guth-Vilenkin – 2003
    Excerpt: inflationary models require physics other than inflation to describe the past boundary of the inflating region of spacetime.
    http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0110012

    Physicists close two loopholes while violating local realism – November 2010
    Excerpt: The latest test in quantum mechanics provides even stronger support than before for the view that nature violates local realism and is thus in contradiction with a classical worldview.
    http://www.physorg.com/news/20.....alism.html

    ‘Quantum Magic’ Without Any ‘Spooky Action at a Distance’ – June 2011
    Excerpt: A team of researchers led by Anton Zeilinger at the University of Vienna and the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences used a system which does not allow for entanglement, and still found results which cannot be interpreted classically.
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....111942.htm

    etc.. etc.. etc.. etc…

  19. 19
    champignon says:

    BA77:

    eigenstate, suggestion duly filed in round file!

    …where BA77 keeps his spam library and his used coffee grounds.

  20. 20
    bornagain77 says:

    No I keep my spam file under a folder named ‘champignon’s comments!’ LOL 🙂

  21. 21
    Axel says:

    “For the first time, Tufts University biologists have reported that bioelectrical signals are necessary for normal head and facial formation in an organism and have captured that process in a time-lapse video that reveals never-before-seen patterns of visible bioelectrical signals outlining where eyes, nose, mouth, and other features will appear in an embryonic tadpole.,,,”

    That would all have been front-loaded in stones, and even the primordial soup. Or not. As the case may be.

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