Earth's magnetic field Earth-Moon system

At Science Daily: How magnetism could help explain Earth’s formation

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A peculiar property of the Earth’s magnetic field could help us to work out how our planet was created 4.5 billion years ago, according to a new scientific assessment.

www.nasa.gov

There are several theories about how the Earth and the Moon were formed, most involving a giant impact. They vary from a model where the impacting object strikes the newly formed Earth a glancing blow and then escapes, through to one where the collision is so energetic that both the impactor and the Earth are vaporized.

Now scientists at the University of Leeds and the University of Chicago have analysed the dynamics of fluids and electrically conducting fluids and concluded that the Earth must have been magnetized either before the impact or as a result of it.

They claim this could help to narrow down the theories of the Earth-Moon formation and inform future research into what really happened.

Professor David Hughes, an applied mathematician in the School of Mathematics at the University of Leeds, said: “Our new idea is to point out that our theoretical understanding of the Earth’s magnetic field today can actually tell us something about the very formation of the Earth-Moon system.

This new assessment is based on the resilience of Earth’s magnetic field, which is maintained by a rotating and electrically conducting fluid in the outer core, known as a geodynamo.

Professor Fausto Cattaneo, an astrophysicist at the University of Chicago, said: “A peculiar property of the Earth’s dynamo is that it can maintain a strong magnetic field but not amplify a weak one.

The scientists therefore concluded that if the Earth’s field were to get switched off, or even reduced to a very small level, it would not have the capability to kick in again.

“It is this remarkable feature that allows us to make deductions about the history of the early Earth; including, possibly, how the Moon was formed,” added Professor Cattaneo.

Professor Hughes added: “And if that is true, then you have to think, where did the Earth’s magnetic field come from in the first place?

“Our hypothesis is that it got to this peculiar state way back at the beginning, either pre-impact or as an immediate result of the impact.

“Either way, any realistic model of the formation of the Earth-Moon system must include magnetic field evolution. “

Science Daily

Scientists have previously shown (Reasons.org) that shortly after the formation of the moon, the combined Earth-Moon magnetic field provided a sufficiently strong shield against the intense solar wind that would have sputtered away Earth’s atmosphere and been damaging to early microbial life.

4 Replies to “At Science Daily: How magnetism could help explain Earth’s formation

  1. 1
    bornagain77 says:

    A few notes:

    Strong planetary magnetic fields like Earth’s may protect oceans from stellar storms – March 14, 2019
    Excerpt: A study by scientists at ANU on the magnetic fields of planets has found that most planets discovered in other solar systems are unlikely to be as hospitable to life as Earth.
    Plants and animals would not survive without water on Earth. The sheer strength of Earth’s magnetic field helps to maintain liquid water on our blue planet’s surface, thereby making it possible for life to thrive.
    Scientists from the ANU Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics modelled the magnetic fields of exoplanets—planets beyond our solar system—and found very few have a magnetic field as strong as Earth.
    They contend that techniques for finding exoplanets the size of Earth are more likely to find slowly rotating planets locked to their host star in the same way the Moon is locked to Earth, with the same side always facing their host star.
    The lead author of the study, Ph.D. scholar Sarah McIntyre, said strong magnetic fields may be necessary to keep wet rocky exoplanets habitable.,,,
    “Venus and Mars have negligible magnetic fields and do not support life, while Earth’s magnetic field is relatively strong and does,” she said.
    “We find most detected exoplanets have very weak magnetic fields, so this is an important factor when searching for potentially habitable planets.”
    https://m.phys.org/news/2019-03-strong-planetary-magnetic-fields-earth.html

    Artist’s impression of Venus, Earth and Mars interacting with the solar wind
    https://www.esa.int/var/esa/storage/images/esa_multimedia/images/2012/03/artist_s_impression_of_venus_earth_and_mars_interacting_with_the_solar_wind/9612850-3-eng-GB/Artist_s_impression_of_Venus_Earth_and_Mars_interacting_with_the_solar_wind_article.jpg

    How Earth’s magnetic field protects us from solar radiation – Kay Vandette – 2018
    Excerpt: The Earth’s magnetic field is an important barrier that protects us all from harmful solar radiation. Charged particles from solar wind bombard the Earth on a daily basis, but the strong force of the magnetic field keeps them at bay.
    https://www.earth.com/news/magnetic-field-solar-radiation/

    Invisible shield found thousands of miles above Earth blocks ‘killer electrons’ – November 26, 2014
    Excerpt: A team led by the University of Colorado Boulder has discovered an invisible shield some 7,200 miles above Earth that blocks so-called “killer electrons,” which whip around the planet at near-light speed and have been known to threaten astronauts, fry satellites and degrade space systems during intense solar storms.
    “It’s almost like these electrons are running into a glass wall in space,” said Baker, the study’s lead author. “Somewhat like the shields created by force fields on Star Trek that were used to repel alien weapons, we are seeing an invisible shield blocking these electrons. It’s an extremely puzzling phenomenon.”
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....133829.htm

    How ‘Space Shield’ Protects Earth from “Sledgehammer Blow” of “Killer Electrons” – March 3, 2015
    Excerpt: “On Oct. 8, 2013, an explosion on the sun’s surface sent a supersonic blast wave of solar wind out into space. This shockwave tore past Mercury and Venus, blitzing by the moon before streaming toward Earth. The shockwave struck a massive blow to the Earth’s magnetic field, setting off a magnetized sound pulse around the planet.”
    Some of the data is analyzed at MIT’s Haystack Observatory, where John Foster acts as associate director. He was surprised at how quickly the particles were accelerated by a factor of 10 in just 60 seconds.
    “Foster and his colleagues analyzed the probes’ data, and laid out the following sequence of events: As the solar shockwave made impact, according to Foster, it struck “a sledgehammer blow” to the protective barrier of the Earth’s magnetic field. But instead of breaking through this barrier, the shockwave effectively bounced away, generating a wave in the opposite direction, in the form of a magnetosonic pulse — a powerful, magnetized sound wave that propagated to the far side of the Earth within a matter of minutes.”
    This was “the first time the effects of a solar shockwave on Earth’s radiation belts have been observed in detail from beginning to end.”
    http://www.evolutionnews.org/2.....94051.html

    How Earth slows the solar wind to a gentle breeze
    NASA satellite data reveals electron-scale energy transformation at the leading edge of Earth’s magnetic field – May 31, 2018
    Excerpt: “If you were to stand on a mountaintop, you might get knocked over by a fast wind,” explained Li-Jen Chen, lead author of the study and an associate research scientist in the UMD Department of Astronomy. “Fortunately, as the solar wind crashes into Earth’s magnetic field, the bow shock protects us by slowing down this wind and changing it to a nice, warm breeze. We now have a better idea how this happens.”
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/05/180531131134.htm

    NASA Magnetic Reconnection (northern lights)- video
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7_Gny2JVqQ8

    The science behind northern lights – October 2, 2012
    Excerpt: ,,,(solar) flares release a burst of charged particles, or plasma, into the solar system. When they come our way, they whack into the Earth’s magnetosphere, which is made up of its own stream of charged particles. That collision causes particles to break free of the magnetosphere and cascade toward the Earth’s magnetic field lines, usually traveling toward the poles. “The aurorae happen when these high-energy particles bap into atoms and molecules in the Earth’s atmosphere, typically oxygen,” Nemiroff said. Light is emitted as part of the reaction.,,,
    http://phys.org/news/2012-10-science-northern.html

  2. 2
    bornagain77 says:

    Of related note to the ‘protective’ magnetic field that allows life to be possible on earth, the earth’s atmosphere, in conjunction with the magnetic field, also ‘fine tunes’ the solar radiation that is allowed to reach the earth’s surface in order to make life possible.

    Dr. Walter Bradley, in a video entitled ‘Creation of the Cosmos’, goes over the fine tuning of the fundamental universal constants, light, and biological life for each other.

    Creation of the Cosmos – Dr. Walter Bradley – Walter Bradley – (35:49 minute mark) video
    https://youtu.be/T4_SQzM-1AY?t=2149

    And here is an article from Dr. Bradley entitled, “Is There Scientific Evidence for the Existence of God? How the Recent Discoveries Support a Designed Universe”, in which Dr. Bradley also goes over the details of fine tuning of the fundamental universal constants, light, and biological life for each other.

    Is There Scientific Evidence for the Existence of God? How the Recent Discoveries Support a Designed Universe – Dr. Walter L. Bradley
    Excerpt: Furthermore, the frequency distribution of electromagnetic radiation produced by the sun must be precisely tuned to the energies of the various chemical bonds on Earth. Excessively energetic photons of radiation (i.e., the ultraviolet radiation emitted from a blue giant star) destroy chemical bonds and destabilize organic molecules. Insufficiently energetic photons (e.g., infrared and longer wavelength radiation from a red dwarf star) would result in chemical reactions that are either too sluggish or would not occur at all. All life on Earth depends upon fine-tuned solar radiation, which requires, in turn, a very precise balancing of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces.
    As previously noted, the chemical bonding energy relies upon quantum mechanical calculations that include the electromagnetic force, the mass of the electron, the speed of light (c), and Planck’s constant (h). Matching the radiation from the sun to the chemical bonding energy requires that the magnitude of six constants be selected to satisfy the following inequality, with the caveat that the two sides of the inequality are of the same order of magnitude, guaranteeing that the photons are sufficiently energetic, but not too energetic.{22},,,
    Substituting the values in Table 2 for h, c, G, me, mp, and e (with units adjusted as required) allows Equation 3 to be evaluated to give:,,,
    In what is either an amazing coincidence or careful design by an intelligent Creator, these constants have the very precise values relative to each other that are necessary to give a universe in which radiation from the sun is tuned to the necessary chemical reactions that are essential for life. This result is illustrated in Figure 3, where the intensity of radiation from the sun and the biological utility of radiation are shown as a function of the wavelength of radiation. The greatest intensity of radiation from the sun occurs at the place of greatest biological utility.,,,
    http://www.leaderu.com/offices.....dence.html

    In the paper Dr. Bradley also lists four graphs. At the bottom of the four graphs he states: “The visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (~1 micron) is the most intense radiation from the sun (Figure 3.1); has the greatest biological utility (Figure 3.2); and passes through atmosphere of Earth (Figure 3.3) and water (Figure 3.4) with almost no absorption. It is uniquely this same wavelength of radiation that is idea to foster the chemistry of life. This is either a truly amazing series of coincidences or else the result of careful design.”,,,
    It is remarkable that both the Earth’s atmosphere and water have “optical windows” that allow visible light (just the radiation necessary for life) to pass through with very little absorption, whereas shorter wavelength (destructive ultraviolet radiation) and longer wavelength (infrared) radiation are both highly absorbed, as seen in Figure 3.{23}

    The visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (~1 micron) is the most intense radiation from the sun (Figure 3.1); has the greatest biological utility (Figure 3.2); and passes through atmosphere of Earth (Figure 3.3) and water (Figure 3.4) with almost no absorption. It is uniquely this same wavelength of radiation that is idea to foster the chemistry of life. This is either a truly amazing series of coincidences or else the result of careful design.,,,
    It is remarkable that both the Earth’s atmosphere and water have “optical windows” that allow visible light (just the radiation necessary for life) to pass through with very little absorption, whereas shorter wavelength (destructive ultraviolet radiation) and longer wavelength (infrared) radiation are both highly absorbed, as seen in Figure 3.{23}
    http://www.leaderu.com/offices.....dence.html

    Moreover, “These specific frequencies of light (that enable plants to manufacture food and astronomers to observe the cosmos) represent less than 1 trillionth of a trillionth (10^-24) of the universe’s entire range of electromagnetic emissions.”

    4:00 minute mark,,, “These specific frequencies of light (that enable plants to manufacture food and astronomers to observe the cosmos) represent less than 1 trillionth of a trillionth (10^-24) of the universe’s entire range of electromagnetic emissions.”
    Privileged Planet (Chapter 9 of 12)
    https://youtu.be/quhucmOAdss?t=173

    And in the following article entitled ‘The “just right” relationship of the light spectrum and photosynthesis’, the author points out that for photosynthesis to occur, ‘light must be of the right color. Light of the wrong color won’t do the trick’. ,,, and the article further goes on to state “There was only one chance in 10^25 of the Sun’s providing just the right kind of light necessary for us,,,”

    The ” just right ” relationship of the light spectrum and photosynthesis
    Excerpt: The American astronomer George Greenstein discusses this in The Symbiotic Universe, p 96:
    Chlorophyll is the molecule that accomplishes photosynthesis… The mechanism of photosynthesis is initiated by the absorption of sunlight by a chlorophyll molecule. But in order for this to occur, the light must be of the right color. Light of the wrong color won’t do the trick.,,,
    The harmony between stellar and molecular physics that Greenstein refers to is a harmony too extraordinary ever to be explained by chance. There was only one chance in 10^25 of the Sun’s providing just the right kind of light necessary for us and that there should be molecules in our world that are capable of using that light. This perfect harmony is unquestionably proof of Intelligent Design.
    http://reasonandscience.catsbo.....osynthesis

  3. 3
    bornagain77 says:

    Moreover, as if the fine-tuning of light to the, (very elaborate), process of photosynthesis was not already bad enough for atheistic naturalists, it is also found that, ‘Certain biological systems living in low light environments have unique protein structures for photosynthesis that use quantum dynamics to convert 100% of absorbed light into electrical charge,,,’

    Unlocking nature’s quantum engineering for efficient solar energy – January 7, 2013
    Excerpt: Certain biological systems living in low light environments have unique protein structures for photosynthesis that use quantum dynamics to convert 100% of absorbed light into electrical charge,,,
    These biological systems can direct a quantum process, in this case energy transport, in astoundingly subtle and controlled ways – showing remarkable resistance to the aggressive, random background noise of biology and extreme environments.
    http://phys.org/news/2013-01-n.....nergy.html

    That level of efficiency trounces any machine, and/or device, that man has ever ‘intelligently designed’ in terms of energy efficiency.

    What’s quantum physics got to do with biology? – June 2012
    Excerpt: certain bacteria can capture 95% of the light that hits them and turn it into useful energy. Solar panels also convert light from the Sun into energy—but they aren’t nearly as good at it. The very best solar panels ever tested in a lab (i.e., not the ones actually available for sale and installation on your house) were able to convert about 34% of the light that hit them into electricity.,, Why can’t we use the Sun’s energy as effectively as bacteria can? The secret may be that the bacteria are using quantum physics to transmit energy.
    http://boingboing.net/2012/06/.....ology.html

    Moreover, in the following article entitled ‘Uncovering Quantum Secret in Photosynthesis’ we find that such stunning 95-100% efficiency for the, (very elaborate), process of photosynthesis is accomplished via a quantum process. Specifically, the researcher stated, “These results show that coherence, a genuine quantum effect of superposition of states, is responsible for maintaining high levels of transport efficiency in biological systems, even while they adapt their energy transport pathways due to environmental influences”

    Uncovering Quantum Secret in Photosynthesis – June 20, 2013
    Excerpt: Photosynthetic organisms, such as plants and some bacteria, have mastered this process: In less than a couple of trillionths of a second, 95 percent of the sunlight they absorb is whisked away to drive the metabolic reactions that provide them with energy. The efficiency of photovoltaic cells currently on the market is around 20 percent.,,,
    Van Hulst and his group have evaluated the energy transport pathways of separate individual but chemically identical, antenna proteins, and have shown that each protein uses a distinct pathway. The most surprising discovery was that the transport paths within single proteins can vary over time due to changes in the environmental conditions, apparently adapting for optimal efficiency. “These results show that coherence, a genuine quantum effect of superposition of states, is responsible for maintaining high levels of transport efficiency in biological systems, even while they adapt their energy transport pathways due to environmental influences” says van Hulst.
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....142932.htm

    The thing that is so antagonistic, indeed the thing that so devastating, for Darwinian materialists with quantum entanglement, and/or quantum coherence, is that it takes a ‘non-local’, beyond space and time, cause in order to explain quantum coherence.

    As the following paper entitled “Looking beyond space and time to cope with quantum theory” stated, “Our result gives weight to the idea that quantum correlations somehow arise from outside spacetime, in the sense that no story in space and time can describe them,”

    Looking beyond space and time to cope with quantum theory – 29 October 2012
    Excerpt: “Our result gives weight to the idea that quantum correlations somehow arise from outside spacetime, in the sense that no story in space and time can describe them,”
    http://www.quantumlah.org/high.....uences.php

    Darwinian atheists, with their reductive materialistic framework, simply have no ‘beyond space and time’ cause that they can appeal to in order to be able to explain quantum non-locality. Whereas Christian Theists readily do have an explanation that they can appeal to in order to explain the quantum non-locality of quantum coherence, (and/or quantum information). (and have been postulating just such a ‘beyond space and time’ cause for a few thousand years now).

    Colossians 1:17
    He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.

    Thus in conclusion, the earth’s magnetic field and the earth’s atmosphere are found to be finely-tuned to allow the ‘just right’ solar radiation to filter thru to the earth’s surface. Moreover, “These specific frequencies of light (that enable plants to manufacture food and astronomers to observe the cosmos) represent less than 1 trillionth of a trillionth (10^-24) of the universe’s entire range of electromagnetic emissions.” And on top of all that fine-tuning to allow for life, photosynthesis itself is found to be dependent upon a ‘non-local’, beyond space and time, cause in order to explain its effect, as well as explaining how it achieves such amazing 95-100% energy efficiency.

    The evidence for Intelligent Design could hardly be any more clear. Too bad that many Darwinian atheists could care less what the scientific evidence itself is actually saying, and that they will hold, (for whatever severely misguided reason), onto their ‘anti-theistic’ worldview no matter what the scientific evidence is actually saying to the contrary.

    Considering the potentially very bad ‘spiritual’ implications of ‘anti-theists’ being separated from God for all of eternity, their stubborn refusal to accept the truth of Intelligent Design is truly a sad state of affairs.

    Matthew 13:15
    For this people’s heart has become calloused; they hardly hear with their ears, and they have closed their eyes. Otherwise they might see with their eyes, hear with their ears, understand with their hearts and turn, and I would heal them.’

  4. 4
    relatd says:

    It still doesn’t answer the problem of planet formation. Where did the material come from? How did it stay in a localized state? Why would it heat up as early illustrations show? Then water, supposedly, rained down to assist the cooling process.

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