Genomics Intelligent Design Video

We have more than 18 trillion feet (6 trillion metres) of DNA

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From the John 10:10 project at Vimeo:

Enter a living human cell to discover a world of unimaginable precision, complexity and design. Measuring less than 2/1000th of an inch in diameter, the cell is packed with molecular machinery that makes life possible. These microscopic wonders include our DNA – the genetic code. Through extraordinary computer animation you’ll discover how the more than 18 trillion feet of DNA in your body is organized, stored and processed.

Imagine, all that information in there doesn’t weigh anything. But it matters.

Hat tip: Philip Cunningham

9 Replies to “We have more than 18 trillion feet (6 trillion metres) of DNA

  1. 1
    bornagain77 says:

    As Berlinski puts it,

    “…applying Darwinian principles to problems of this level of complexity is like putting a Band-Aid on a wound caused by an atomic weapon. It’s just not going to work.”
    – David Berlinski

    Getting Over the Code Delusion – Stephen L. Talbott – 2010
    Excerpt: If you arranged the DNA in a human cell linearly, it would extend for nearly two meters. How do you pack all that DNA into a cell nucleus just five or ten millionths of a meter in diameter? According to the usual comparison it’s as if you had to pack 24 miles (40 km) of extremely thin thread into a tennis ball. Moreover, this thread is divided into 46 pieces (individual chromosomes) averaging, in our tennis-ball analogy, over half a mile long. Can it be at all possible not only to pack the chromosomes into the nucleus, but also to keep them from becoming hopelessly entangled?
    Obviously it must be possible, however difficult to conceive — and in fact an endlessly varied packing and unpacking is going on all the time. The first thing to realize is that chromosomes do not consist of DNA only. Their actual substance, an intricately woven structure of DNA, RNA, and protein, is referred to as chromatin. Histone proteins, several of which can bind together in the form of an extremely complex histone core particle, are the single most prominent constituent of this chromatin. Every cell contains numerous such core particles — there are some 30 million in a typical human cell — and the DNA double helix, after wrapping a couple of times around one of them, typically extends for a short stretch and then wraps around another one. The core particle with its DNA is referred to as a nucleosome, and between 75 and 90 percent of our DNA is wrapped up in nucleosomes.
    But that’s just the first level of packing; it accounts for relatively little of the overall condensation of the chromosomes. If you twist a long, double-stranded rope, you will find the rope beginning to coil upon itself, and if you continue to twist, the coils will coil upon themselves, and so on without particular limit, depending on the fineness and length of the rope. Something like this supercoiling happens with the chromosome, mediated in part by the histone core particles. As a result the core particles, and the DNA along with them, become tightly packed almost beyond comprehension, in a dense, three-dimensional geometry that researchers have yet to visualize in any detail.,,,

    Genes and Organisms: Improvising the Dance of Life – Stephen L. Talbott – Nov. 10, 2015
    Excerpt: Hundreds or thousands of DNA sequences move (or are moved) within vast numbers of cell nuclei, and are subjected to extraordinarily nuanced, locally modulated chemical activity so as to contribute appropriately to bodily requirements that are nowhere codified — least of all in those DNA sequences.,,,
    You may recall from my earlier article, “Getting Over the Code Delusion” (Talbott 2010), that packing DNA into a typical cell nucleus is like packing about 24 miles of very thin, double-stranded string into a tennis ball,,,,
    To locate a protein-coding gene of typical size within all that DNA is like homing in on a one-half-inch stretch within those 24 miles. Or, rather, two relevant half-inch stretches located on different pieces of string, since we typically have two copies of any given gene. Except that sometimes one copy differs from the other and one version is not supposed to be expressed, or one version needs to be expressed more than the other, or the product of one needs to be modified relative to the other. So part of the job may be to distinguish one of those half-inch stretches from the other. “Decisions” everywhere, it seems.,,,
    The overall picture of gene expression is one of unsurveyable complexity in the service of remarkably effective living processes.,,,
    A decisive problem for the classical view of DNA is that “as cells differentiate and respond to stimuli in the human body, over one million different proteins are likely to be produced from less than 25,000 genes”.30 Functionally, in other words, you might say that we have over a million genes.,,,

    DNA literally screams that ‘we are Intelligently Designed’ from every angle that we look at it.

    For instance, the information storage capacity of DNA vastly exceeds the best efforts of man to store information in computers. As of 2011, it was found that it is ‘theoretically’ possible to store all the information in the world on just 4 grams of DNA:

    Information Storage in DNA by Wyss Institute – video?
    Quote from preceding video:?”The theoretical (information) density of DNA is you could store the total world information, which is 1.8 zetabytes, at least in 2011, in about 4 grams of DNA.”?Sriram Kosuri PhD. – Wyss Institute?- Harvard

    Storing information in DNA – Test-tube data – Jan 26th 2013?
    Excerpt: Dr Goldman’s new scheme is significant in several ways. He and his team have managed to set a record (739.3 kilobytes) for the amount of unique information encoded. But it has been designed to do far more than that. It should, think the researchers, be easily capable of swallowing the roughly 3 zettabytes (a zettabyte is one billion trillion or 10²¹ bytes) of digital data thought presently to exist in the world and still have room for plenty more.?

    Moreover, the power efficiency of DNA is found to be almost a billion times better than that of flash memory,

    The World’s Ideal Storage Medium Is “Beyond Silicon” – January 20, 2017
    Excerpt: it’s easy to see why DNA is “one of the strongest candidates yet” to replace silicon as the storage medium of the future. The read-write speed is about 30 times faster than your computer’s hard drive. The expected data retention is 10 times longer. The power usage is ridiculously low, almost a billion times less than flash memory.,,,,

    Which is only about an order of magnitude worse than the limit of Landauer’s bound.

    The thermodynamic efficiency of computations made in cells across the range of life. – 2017 Dec.
    Excerpt: Here we show that the computational efficiency of translation, defined as free energy expended per amino acid operation, outperforms the best supercomputers by several orders of magnitude, and is only about an order of magnitude worse than the Landauer bound.

  2. 2
    bornagain77 says:

    Moreover, the integrated coding between the DNA, RNA and Proteins of the cell is, apparently, ingeniously designed and/or programmed along the very stringent guidelines laid out in Landauer’s principle, (by Charles Bennett from IBM of Quantum Teleportation fame), for ‘reversible computation’ in order to achieve such amazing energy/biochemical efficiency as it does.

    Notes on Landauer’s principle, reversible computation, and Maxwell’s Demon – Charles H. Bennett – September 2003
    ?Excerpt: Of course, in practice, almost all data processing is done on macroscopic apparatus, dissipating macroscopic amounts of energy far in excess of what would be required by Landauer’s principle. Nevertheless, some stages of biomolecular information processing, such as transcription of DNA to RNA, appear to be accomplished by chemical reactions that are reversible not only in principle but in practice.,,,, ?

    Logical Reversibility of Computation* – C. H. Bennett – 1973?Excerpt from last paragraph: The biosynthesis and biodegradation of messenger RNA may be viewed as convenient examples of logically reversible and irreversible computation, respectively. Messenger RNA. a linear polymeric informational macromolecule like DNA, carries the genetic information from one or more genes of a DNA molecule. and serves to direct the synthesis of the proteins encoded by those genes. Messenger RNA is synthesized by the enzyme RNA polymerase in the presence of a double-stranded DNA molecule and a supply of RNA monomers (the four nucleotide pyrophosphates ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP) [7]. The enzyme attaches to a specific site on the DNA molecule and moves along, sequentially incorporating the RNA monomers into a single-stranded RNA molecule whose nucleotide sequence exactly matches that of the DNA. The pyrophosphate groups are released into the surrounding solution as free pyrophosphate molecules. The enzyme may thus be compared to a simple tape-copying Turing machine that manufactures its output tape rather than merely writing on it. Tape copying is a logically reversible operation. and RNA polymerase is both thermodynamically and logically reversible.,,,?

    The amazing energy efficiency possible with ‘reversible computation’ has been known about since Charles Bennett first laid out the principles for such reversible computation in 1973, but as far as I know, due to the extreme level of complexity involved in actually designing such ingenious ‘reversible computation’ in our own computers, has yet to be accomplished in any meaningful way in our own computers:

    Reversible computing?
    Excerpt: Reversible computing is a model of computing where the computational process to some extent is reversible, i.e., time-invertible.,,, Although achieving this goal presents a significant challenge for the design, manufacturing, and characterization of ultra-precise new physical mechanisms for computing, there is at present no fundamental reason to think that this goal cannot eventually be accomplished, allowing us to someday build computers that generate much less than 1 bit’s worth of physical entropy (and dissipate much less than kT ln 2 energy to heat) for each useful logical operation that they carry out internally.?

    Can reversible computing really dissipate absolutely zero energy?
    Of course not. Any non-equilibrium physical system (whether a computer or a rock) dissipates energy at some rate,,,
    Okay, then can reversible computing really make the energy dissipation of a computation be an arbitrarily small non-zero amount?
    Only insofar as the computer can be arbitrarily well isolated from unwanted interactions, errors, and energy leakage,,,
    But, despite all these caveats, it may yet be possible to set up reversible computations that dissipate such amazingly tiny amounts of energy that the dissipation is not a barrier to anything that we might wish to do with them – I call such computations ballistic. We are a long way from achieving ballistic computation, but we do not yet know of any fundamental reasons that forbid it from ever being technically possible.

    As well, the ‘grammar’ of the human genetic code is now found to be ‘more complex than that of even the most intricately constructed spoken languages in the world.’

    Complex grammar of the genomic language – November 9, 2015
    Excerpt: The ‘grammar’ of the human genetic code is more complex than that of even the most intricately constructed spoken languages in the world. The findings explain why the human genome is so difficult to decipher –,,,
    ,,, in their recent study in Nature, the Taipale team examines the binding preferences of pairs of transcription factors, and systematically maps the compound DNA words they bind to.
    Their analysis reveals that the grammar of the genetic code is much more complex than that of even the most complex human languages. Instead of simply joining two words together by deleting a space, the individual words that are joined together in compound DNA words are altered, leading to a large number of completely new words.

    In fact, the coding in DNA vastly exceeds what even our most talented computer programmers are capable of writing.

    There are now found to be multiple overlapping codes encoded within a single stretch of DNA.

    The data compression of some stretches of human DNA is estimated to be up to 12 codes thick
    – John Sanford – Genetic Entropy – 2005??

    Multiple Overlapping Genetic Codes Profoundly Reduce the Probability of Beneficial Mutation
    – George Montañez 1, Robert J. Marks II 2, Jorge Fernandez 3 and John C. Sanford 4 – May 2013?
    Excerpt: In the last decade, we have discovered still another aspect of the multi-dimensional genome. We now know that DNA sequences are typically “ poly-functional” [38]. Trifanov previously had described at least 12 genetic codes that any given nucleotide can contribute to [39,40], and showed that a given base-pair can contribute to multiple overlapping codes simultaneously. The first evidence of overlapping protein-coding sequences in viruses caused quite a stir, but since then it has become recognized as typical. According to Kapronov et al., “it is not unusual that a single base-pair can be part of an intricate network of multiple isoforms of overlapping sense and antisense transcripts, the majority of which are unannotated” [41]. The ENCODE project [42] has confirmed that this phenomenon is ubiquitous in higher genomes, wherein a given DNA sequence routinely encodes multiple overlapping messages, meaning that a single nucleotide can contribute to two or more genetic codes. Most recently, Itzkovitz et al. analyzed protein coding regions of 700 species, and showed that virtually all forms of life have extensive overlapping information in their genomes [43].?38. Sanford J (2008) Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome. FMS Publications, NY. Pages 131–142.?39. Trifonov EN (1989) Multiple codes of nucleotide sequences. Bull of Mathematical Biology 51:417–432.?40. Trifanov EN (1997) Genetic sequences as products of compression by inclusive superposition of many codes. Mol Biol 31:647–654.?41. Kapranov P, et al (2005) Examples of complex architecture of the human transcriptome revealed by RACE and high density tiling arrays. Genome Res 15:987–997.?42. Birney E, et al (2007) Encode Project Consortium: Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project. Nature 447:799–816.?43. Itzkovitz S, Hodis E, Sega E (2010) Overlapping codes within protein-coding sequences. Genome Res. 20:1582–1589.?

    In fact, there is one human gene that codes for 576 different proteins, and there is one fruit fly gene that codes for 38,016 different proteins!

    Time to Redefine the Concept of a Gene? – Sept. 10, 2012
    Excerpt: As detailed in my second post on alternative splicing, there is one human gene that codes for 576 different proteins, and there is one fruit fly gene that codes for 38,016 different proteins!
    While the fact that a single gene can code for so many proteins is truly astounding, we didn’t really know how prevalent alternative splicing is. Are there only a few genes that participate in it, or do most genes engage in it? The ENCODE data presented in reference 2 indicates that at least 75% of all genes participate in alternative splicing. They also indicate that the number of different proteins each gene makes varies significantly, with most genes producing somewhere between 2 and 25.

  3. 3
    bornagain77 says:

    As Dr John Sanford commented, “our best computer programmers can’t even conceive of overlapping codes. The genome dwarfs all of the computer information technology that man has developed.”

    ‘It’s becoming extremely problematic to explain how the genome could arise and how these multiple levels of overlapping information could arise, since our best computer programmers can’t even conceive of overlapping codes. The genome dwarfs all of the computer information technology that man has developed. So I think that it is very problematic to imagine how you can achieve that through random changes in the code.,,, and there is no Junk DNA in these codes. More and more the genome looks likes a super-super set of programs.,, More and more it looks like top down design and not just bottom up chance discovery of making complex systems.’ –
    Dr. John Sanford – Inventor of the ‘Gene Gun’ – 31 second mark – video

    Besides DNA being a ‘super-super set of programs’, DNA is also ingeniously designed to prevent damage from UV light:

    DNA Optimized for Photostability ?
    Excerpt: These nucleobases maximally absorb UV-radiation at the same wavelengths that are most effectively shielded by ozone. Moreover, the chemical structures of the nucleobases of DNA allow the UV-radiation to be efficiently radiated away after it has been absorbed, restricting the opportunity for damage. ?

    Base-pairing protects DNA from UV damage – Sept. 19, 2014
    Excerpt: researchers have discovered a further function of the base-pairing that holds the two strands of the DNA double helix together: it plays a crucial role in protecting the DNA from the ultraviolet rays of the Sun.,,
    The researchers have now used a combination of femtosecond infrared spectroscopy – a technique which employs ultrashort pulses of infrared light (a femtosecond lasts for a millionth of a billionth of second) to probe the dynamics of excited molecular states – and bioorganic chemistry to elucidate a new function of base-pairing: it protects DNA from photodamage.,,,
    After photoexcitation of this DNA with short laser pulses of UV light, the researchers discovered that the hazardous excited states, which can form in any of the bases, are deactivated by an unexpectedly simple mechanism: Each excited pair – whether it be a G-C or an A-T pair – decays into the ground state in a concerted manner. “Thus, the Watson-Crick base-pairing mechanism itself controls the dissipation of the absorbed UV energy.,,
    Watson-Crick base pairing acts as a natural “sunscreen” and is of fundamental importance in enabling organisms to survive exposure to UV radiation.,,,

    As well, the repair mechanism of DNA is so efficient that it has been compared to, “spotting potholes on every street all over the country and getting them fixed before the next rush hour.”

    Quantum Dots Spotlight DNA-Repair Proteins in Motion – March 2010
    Excerpt: “How this system works is an important unanswered question in this field,” he said. “It has to be able to identify very small mistakes in a 3-dimensional morass of gene strands. It’s akin to spotting potholes on every street all over the country and getting them fixed before the next rush hour.”
    – Dr. Bennett Van Houten –
    of note: A bacterium has about 40 team members on its pothole crew. That allows its entire genome to be scanned for errors in 20 minutes, the typical doubling time.,, These smart machines can apparently also interact with other damage control teams if they cannot fix the problem on the spot.

    Of note: DNA repair machines ‘Fixing every pothole in America before the next rush hour’ is analogous to the traveling salesman problem. The traveling salesman problem is a NP-hard (read: very hard) problem in computer science; The problem involves finding the shortest possible route between cities, visiting each city only once. ‘Traveling salesman problems’ are notorious for keeping supercomputers busy for days.

    NP-hard problem – Examples
    Excerpt: Another example of an NP-hard problem is the optimization problem of finding the least-cost cyclic route through all nodes of a weighted graph. This is commonly known as the traveling salesman problem.
    – per wikipedia

    Yet it is exactly this type of ‘traveling salesman problem’ that quantum computers excel at:

    Speed Test of Quantum Versus Conventional Computing: Quantum Computer Wins – May 8, 2013
    Excerpt: quantum computing is, “in some cases, really, really fast.”
    McGeoch says the calculations the D-Wave excels at involve a specific combinatorial optimization problem, comparable in difficulty to the more famous “travelling salesperson” problem that’s been a foundation of theoretical computing for decades.,,,
    “This type of computer is not intended for surfing the internet, but it does solve this narrow but important type of problem really, really fast,” McGeoch says. “There are degrees of what it can do. If you want it to solve the exact problem it’s built to solve, at the problem sizes I tested, it’s thousands of times faster than anything I’m aware of. If you want it to solve more general problems of that size, I would say it competes — it does as well as some of the best things I’ve looked at. At this point it’s merely above average but shows a promising scaling trajectory.”

    Thus, since it is obvious that there is not some type of classical CPU (central processing unit) in the DNA, or cell, busily crunching numbers to this monster logistic problem, in a purely ‘classical’ fashion, then it is obvious that this monster ‘traveling salesman problem’, for DNA repair, must somehow be computed with ‘non-local’ quantum computation;

    And indeed, it is now found that practically the whole DNA molecule can be viewed as quantum information with classical information embedded within it

    “What happens is this classical information (of DNA) is embedded, sandwiched, into the quantum information (of DNA). And most likely this classical information is never accessed because it is inside all the quantum information. You can only access the quantum information or the electron clouds and the protons. So mathematically you can describe that as a quantum/classical state.”
    Elisabeth Rieper – Classical and Quantum Information in DNA – video (Longitudinal Quantum Information resides along the entire length of DNA discussed at the 19:30 minute mark; at 24:00 minute mark Dr Rieper remarks that practically the whole DNA molecule can be viewed as quantum information with classical information embedded within it)

    Such massive quantum entanglement in DNA, with trillions upon trillions of atoms being simultaneously entangled, simply trounces anything man has yet to accomplish in regards to his efforts to build quantum computers on a practical scale.

    The biggest flipping challenge in quantum computing By Adrian Cho – Jul. 9, 2020
    Excerpt: Physicists have begun to test their theoretical schemes in small experiments, but the challenge is grand. To demonstrate quantum supremacy, Google scientists had to wrangle 53 qubits. To encode the data in a single qubit with sufficient fidelity, they may need to master 1000 of them.

  4. 4
    bornagain77 says:

    As unfathomably complex as DNA is turning to be, simply looking at a cross section of DNA is enough for most ordinary people to instantly see that DNA must obviously be the product of Intelligent Design,

    Cross section of DNA compared to the Rose window at York Minster (the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe) – picture

    In fact, DNA is ingeniously designed along the architecture of the very beautiful Golden Ratio

    Infinite Patterns – Cristobal Vila – 1:39 minute mark – video

    DNA spiral as a Golden Section
    Excerpt: The DNA molecule, the program for all life, is based on the golden section. It measures 34 angstroms long by 21 angstroms wide for each full cycle of its double helix spiral. 34 and 21, of course, are numbers in the Fibonacci series and their ratio, 1.6190476 closely approximates phi, 1.6180339.
    DNA in the cell appears as a double-stranded helix referred to as B-DNA.This form of DNA has a two groove in its spirals, with a ratio of phi in the proportion of the major groove to the minor groove, or roughly 21 angstroms to 13 angstroms.
    ,,, a cross-sectional view from the top of the DNA double helix forms a decagon:
    A decagon is in essence two pentagons, with one rotated by 36 degrees from the other, so each spiral of the double helix must trace out the shape of a pentagon.
    The ratio of the diagonal of a pentagon to its side is Phi to 1. So, no matter which way you look at it, even in its smallest element, DNA, and life, is constructed using phi and the golden section!

    Of related interest, natural log e is found to be necessary for calculating ‘growth’ of the ‘golden spiral’ of the Fibonacci number;

    The Logarithmic Spiral
    Excerpt: 1. r increases proportionally and remains in proportion with the golden ratio as theta increases if we define the equation as above, multiplied by e^(a*phi). The reasons for this are more thoroughly discussed by Mukhopadhyay.?

    I do not know how deep the connection actually is, but Euler’s Identity, (which contains natural log e and which was once voted ‘The Most Beautiful Equation of Math’),,,,

    The Most Beautiful Equation of Math: Euler’s Identity
    In 1988, a Mathematical Intelligencer poll voted Euler’s identity as the most beautiful feat of all of mathematics. In one mystical equation, Euler had merged the most amazing numbers of mathematics:

    God by the Numbers – Connecting the constants?Excerpt: The final number comes from theoretical mathematics. It is Euler’s (pronounced “Oiler’s”) number: e^pi*i. This number is equal to -1, so when the formula is written e^pi*i+1 = 0, it connects the five most important constants in mathematics (e, pi, i, 0, and 1) along with three of the most important mathematical operations (addition, multiplication, and exponentiation). These five constants symbolize the four major branches of classical mathematics: arithmetic, represented by 1 and 0; algebra, by i; geometry, by pi; and analysis, by e, the base of the natural log. e^pi*i+1 = 0 has been called “the most famous of all formulas,” because, as one textbook says, “It appeals equally to the mystic, the scientist, the philosopher, and the mathematician.”,,,?The discovery of this number gave mathematicians the same sense of delight and wonder that would come from the discovery that three broken pieces of pottery, each made in different countries, could be fitted together to make a perfect sphere. It seemed to argue that there was a plan where no plan should be.,,,?Today, numbers from astronomy, biology, and theoretical mathematics point to a rational mind behind the universe.,,, The apostle John prepared the way for this conclusion when he used the word for logic, reason, and rationality—logos—to describe Christ at the beginning of his Gospel: “In the beginning was the logos, and the logos was with God, and the logos was God.” When we think logically, which is the goal of mathematics, we are led to think of God.?

    ,,,, I do not know how deep the connection is, but Euler’s Identity ‘coincidentally’ graphs out as a right handed spiral, just like DNA does.

    i.e. Euler’s Identity, when plotted in 3D, results in the fundamental geometry of DNA: a right handed helix!??

    The following images show the graph of the complex exponential function, complex exponential function, e^{ix}, by plotting the Taylor series of e^{ix} in the 3D complex space (a helix)?

    gif of Euler’s

  5. 5
    bornagain77 says:

    In the following article, Adam Rutherford takes exception to the many incorrect examples of left handed DNA spirals that he has found on the Internet and even found at many reputable institutions:

    DNA’s twist to the right is not to be meddled with, so let’s lose the lefties – Adam Rutherford – 30 April 2013

    Example of a correct right-handed DNA spiral – image

    In regards to the apparent intelligent design of DNA and in DNA, I have, obviously, only barely scratched the surface. I sure much more could be said and someone could easily write a (very thick) book on the subject.


    Psalm 139:13-14
    For you created my inmost being;
    you knit me together in my mother’s womb.
    I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made;
    your works are wonderful,
    I know that full well.

  6. 6
    jerry says:

    I’m watching a Great Courses course on DNA.

    Instructor said one cell of DNA is 6 ft long as in this video. All the DNA in one body would stretch from the sun to Pluto and back again. A different analogy from video. All the DNA on earth would stretch across the visible universe universe several times.

  7. 7
    Truthfreedom says:

    On the other hand, we have the “materialist” credo:

    Psalm 0:0
    For everything is imperfect;
    randomness knit me(an “illusory self”) together in my “naturally selected” mother’s womb.
    I praise nothing because I am a meat-robot imperfectly and randomly made;
    your works are wonderful “natural selection”
    I know that full well because Darwin said so.

  8. 8
    rhampton7 says:

    DNA does indeed weigh something. It is made of mass.

  9. 9
    Truthfreedom says:


    DNA does indeed weigh something. It is made of mass.

    Denyse was talking of the immaterial information (“soul”).

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