Using a five-factor test. Convergent evolution is cited:
Researchers found that the personality traits of killer whales were similar to those of both humans and chimpanzees but more similar to chimpanzees. Killer whales were similar to chimpanzees and humans for the extraversion factor (e.g., playful, gregarious and sociable). Killer whales and chimpanzees also shared a combination of personality traits for conscientiousness (e.g., constant, stubborn and protective) and agreeableness (e.g., patient, peaceable and not bullying), along with some personality traits relating to dominance.
The findings may suggest some evolutionary convergence where the personality traits of killer whales and primates are similar because of the advanced cognitive abilities required for complex social interactions. “Killer Whales Share Personality Traits with Humans, Chimpanzees” at American Psychological Association
Too bad dogs and horses were not also measured because they would likely show those traits too. This research demonstrates that the qualities that one might expect to find in mammals living in a closely-knit group. But here’s the conundrum: If humans, chimps, and killer whales all show a trait, why study chimpanzees — as is so often done — in order to better understand it in humans? That is, if convergence on a common goal is a reasonable explanation, what specific question is answered by claims of common descent?
Convergent evolution is, of course, a better explanation for similar psychological traits than common descent. Dogs and horses, for example, are drawn to humans; chimps are not. Dogs and horses are not drawn to chimps either. Studying the relationships that do exist, we will likely find that humans can substitute for something dogs and horses seek in their peers and thus supplant the natural relationship. But that is because a similar type of relationship exists, convergently, among humans.
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See also: BBC: Chimpanzees show empathy and altruism just like humans. And politicians can learn from them. Reality: Chimpanzees don’t seek humans out the way dogs do. In many ways, dogs are more like humans than chimpanzees are and better able to communicate with us emotionally. Dogs don’t seek out chimpanzees, come to think of it, though recently, some researchers needed to convince themselves that something like that was happening between monkeys and wolves. (Uh, no.)
Evolution appears to converge on goals—but in Darwinian terms, is that possible?