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Epigenetic regulation in prokaryotes different from eukaryotes

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Here. From Genetics and Epigenetics:

The evolution process includes genetic alterations which started with prokaryotes and now continues in humans. A distinct difference between prokaryotic chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes involves histones. As evolution progressed, genetic alterations accumulated and a mechanism for gene selection developed. It was as if nature was experimenting to optimally utilize the gene pool without changing individual gene sequences.

This mechanism is called epigenetics, as it is above the genome. Curiously, the mechanism of epigenetic regulation in prokaryotes is strikingly different from that in eukaryotes, mainly higher eukaryotes, like mammals. In fact, epigenetics plays a huge role in the conserved process of
embryogenesis and human development. Malfunction of epigenetic regulation results in many types of undesirable effects, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. This review provides a comparative analysis of all these aspects.More.

See also: Epigenetic change: Lamarck, wake up, you’re wanted in the conference room!

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10 Replies to “Epigenetic regulation in prokaryotes different from eukaryotes

  1. 1
    Dionisio says:

    Epigenetics is a mechanism of gene transcription regulation that does not change the DNA sequence and is usually reversible.

    Willbanks et al. the evolution of epigenetics: From prokaryotes to Humans and its Biological consequences. Genetics & Epigenetics 2016:8 25–36 doi:10.4137/GeG.s31863

  2. 2
    Dionisio says:

    […] the transcriptional regulation by epigenetic mechanisms is critical in the development in which changes determine the differentiation of cells into different cell types with specific functions.

    Willbanks et al. the evolution of epigenetics: From prokaryotes to Humans and its Biological consequences. Genetics & Epigenetics 2016:8 25–36 doi:10.4137/GeG.s31863

  3. 3
    Dionisio says:

    […] the actual process of copy number increase may follow the same mechanism of antigen receptor or antibody class switch recombination (CSR), which is directed by the chromosomal loop domain mediated by CTCF and cohesion.115 This is a new concept and further studies are necessary to test this hypothesis.

    Willbanks et al. the evolution of epigenetics: From prokaryotes to Humans and its Biological consequences. Genetics & Epigenetics 2016:8 25–36 doi:10.4137/GeG.s31863

  4. 4
    Dionisio says:

    […] the mechanisms and requirements for epigenetics have remained relatively conserved in individual cell types.

    Willbanks et al. the evolution of epigenetics: From prokaryotes to Humans and its Biological consequences. Genetics & Epigenetics 2016:8 25–36 doi:10.4137/GeG.s31863

  5. 5
    Dionisio says:

    […] the regulation of CpG DNA methylation by histone modifications, and reversely the regulation of histone modifications by gene products regulated by CpG DNA methylation, will uncover many mysteries not yet understood.

    Willbanks et al. the evolution of epigenetics: From prokaryotes to Humans and its Biological consequences. Genetics & Epigenetics 2016:8 25–36 doi:10.4137/GeG.s31863

  6. 6
    Dionisio says:

    Another area that warrants further investigation is the regeneration process […]

    Willbanks et al. the evolution of epigenetics: From prokaryotes to Humans and its Biological consequences. Genetics & Epigenetics 2016:8 25–36 doi:10.4137/GeG.s31863

  7. 7
    Dionisio says:

    There is sufficient indication that the regeneration process is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, but the exact mechanisms in different types of organisms have not been determined.

    Willbanks et al. the evolution of epigenetics: From prokaryotes to Humans and its Biological consequences. Genetics & Epigenetics 2016:8 25–36 doi:10.4137/GeG.s31863

  8. 8
    Dionisio says:

    […] the reversible nature of epigenetic alterations generates a tremendous potential that histone modifications regulate DNA methylation, and DNA methylation in turn regulates histone modifications, which constitute a tight cycle, like many of the well-defined cycles present in biochemical pathways.

    Willbanks et al. the evolution of epigenetics: From prokaryotes to Humans and its Biological consequences. Genetics & Epigenetics 2016:8 25–36 doi:10.4137/GeG.s31863

  9. 9
    Dionisio says:

    These cycles should be conserved during normal development constituting an epigenetic switch, which should be conserved for a particular tissue development or a particular function.

    Willbanks et al. the evolution of epigenetics: From prokaryotes to Humans and its Biological consequences. Genetics & Epigenetics 2016:8 25–36 doi:10.4137/GeG.s31863

  10. 10
    bornagain77 says:

    Evolutionary Crisis and the Third Way by Jeffrey P. Tomkins, Ph.D. – July 29, 2016
    Excerpt: If the problems with the fossil record were not bad enough, evolutionists are now faced with the unimaginable complexity found in any living cell and its genome. And not only are useful mutations extremely rare, nearly all genes studied to date are unable to freely mutate and evolve as once thought. Instead, genes form irreducibly complex hierarchical networks with many other genes and regulatory systems in the cell.
    In addition, it now appears that DNA in the genome can be tagged in specific places with special molecules that change gene function but keep the DNA sequence intact—a field of study called epigenetics. Epigenetic changes are dynamic and controlled by complicated cellular systems. They enable incredible levels of fine-tuned, environment-specific adjustments within organisms without any DNA sequence modifications whatsoever. Offspring can even inherit many of these epigenetic changes.
    In light of these new genomic discoveries, evolutionary scientists are now at odds with one another over how evolution can work at even the most basic genetic level. Approximately 10 years ago, a splinter group of prominent evolutionists broke off and formed a movement called The Third Way or the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis.5,6 In regard to classical neo-Darwinism, which is still quite popular in the secular mainstream, they claim neo-Darwinism “ignores much contemporary molecular evidence and invokes a set of unsupported assumptions about the accidental nature of hereditary variation.”6 They also state:
    “The DNA record does not support the assertion that small random mutations are the main source of new and useful variations. We now know that the many different processes of variation involve well regulated cell action on DNA molecules.”6
    http://www.icr.org/article/evo.....-third-way

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