The evolution process includes genetic alterations which started with prokaryotes and now continues in humans. A distinct difference between prokaryotic chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes involves histones. As evolution progressed, genetic alterations accumulated and a mechanism for gene selection developed. It was as if nature was experimenting to optimally utilize the gene pool without changing individual gene sequences.
This mechanism is called epigenetics, as it is above the genome. Curiously, the mechanism of epigenetic regulation in prokaryotes is strikingly different from that in eukaryotes, mainly higher eukaryotes, like mammals. In fact, epigenetics plays a huge role in the conserved process of
embryogenesis and human development. Malfunction of epigenetic regulation results in many types of undesirable effects, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. This review provides a comparative analysis of all these aspects.More.
See also: Epigenetic change: Lamarck, wake up, you’re wanted in the conference room!
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