Especially before birth:
The researchers identified two KZFPs [Krüppel-associated box-containing zinc finger proteins] as specific only to primates, and found that they are expressed in specific regions of the human developing and adult brain. They further observed that these proteins kept controlling the activity of transposable elements — at least in neurons and brain organoids cultured in the lab. As a result, these two KZFPs influenced the differentiation and neurotransmission profile of neurons, as well as guarded these cells against inflammatory responses that were otherwise triggered if their target transposable elements were left to be expressed.
“These results reveal how two proteins that appeared only recently in evolution have contributed to shape the human brain by facilitating the co-option of transposable elements, these virus-like entities that have been remodeling our ancestral genome since the dawn of times,” says Didier Trono. “Our findings also suggest possible pathogenic mechanisms for diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or other neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental disorders, providing leads for the prevention or treatment of these problems.”Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, “‘Jumping’ DNA regulates human neurons” at ScienceDaily
Paper. (open access)
Note: “these virus-like entities that have been remodeling our ancestral genome since the dawn of times,” says Didier Trono.” Right. We are told that many of the French have no use for lumpen-Darwinism. One can see why not.