'Junk DNA' Intelligent Design

Non-coding RNA: More uses for the “junk” in our genome

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RNA molecule
RNA molecule graphic/Feldman, Wikipedia
A paper at Nature from Karen Adelman & Emily Egan (Nature 543, 183–185 (09 March 2017) doi:10.1038/543183a)

It emerges that nascent non-coding RNAs transcribed from regulatory DNA sequences called enhancers bind to the enzyme CBP to promote its activity locally. In turn, the activities of CBP stimulate further enhancer transcription. (paywall) More.

See also: Cod gene puzzle: At least no one is claiming it is β€œjunk RNA”

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9 Replies to “Non-coding RNA: More uses for the “junk” in our genome

  1. 1
    Dionisio says:

    News, that’s a very interesting paper. Thanks.

  2. 2
    Dionisio says:

    They ain’t seen nothin’ yet. πŸ™‚

  3. 3
    Dionisio says:

    A model is emerging in which transcription is itself an early step in enhancer activation.

    […] transcription of enhancers can generate a positive-feedback loop that stabilizes both enhancer activity and gene-expression profiles.

    Overall, the current study fundamentally changes the discourse around eRNA functions, by demonstrating that these RNAs can have major, locus-specific roles in enhancer activity that do not require a particular RNA-sequence context or abundance.

    Furthermore, by providing strong evidence that CBP interacts with eRNAs as they are being transcribed, this study highlights the value of investigating nascent RNAs for understanding enhancer activity.

    http://membs.org/membs/news/de.....e-genomics

    By interacting directly with CBP, eRNAs contribute to the unique chromatin structure at active enhancers, which, in turn, is required for regulation of target genes.

    RNA Binding to CBP Stimulates Histone Acetylation and Transcription
    Daniel A. Bose, Greg Donahue, Danny Reinberg, Ramin Shiekhattar, Roberto Bonasio, Shelley L. Berger
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.020
    Volume 168, Issues 1-2, p135–149.e22

    fundamentally changes the discourse?

    Complex complexity.

    [emphasis added]

  4. 4
    Dionisio says:

    Once thought to be junk, extracellular vesicles (EVs) may play an important role in intercellular communication […] according to a new article published in the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering.

    From junk to biomarker: Extracellular vesicles probed for cancer treatment
    Paul Basilio, MDLinx

    Complex complexity.

  5. 5
    Dionisio says:

    Skeletal myogenesis is a complex process that depends on the modulation of a series of genes.

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently emerged as an important class of gene expression regulators.

    Further study is needed to investigate the underlying mechanism.

    […] some lncRNAs play distinct roles in multiple processes or the same role in dissimilar pathways […]

    In mammals, the majority of the transcriptional output is noncoding […]

    Compared to the well-studied coding genes, lncRNAs undoubtedly have greater research potential […]

    LncRNA H19 promotes the differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells by suppressing Sirt1/FoxO1
    Xiaochun Xu, Shengyue Ji, Weili Li, Bao Yi, Hengxin Li, Hongfu Zhang, and Wenping Ma
    Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2017; 22: 10.
    doi: 10.1186/s11658-017-0040-6

    Complex complexity

  6. 6
    Dionisio says:

    MiRNAs are key regulators of the mammalian transcriptome […]

    […] at present there is no knowledge of the complete miRNA profile of motor neurons.

    The expansion of non-coding RNA in higher organisms has been suggested to be a primary determinant of biological complexity […]

    The conventional understanding is that the majority of the human genome is primarily transcribed into functional non-coding RNA, while only ~2% is dedicated to coding regions […]

    MotomiRs: miRNAs in Motor Neuron Function and Disease
    Zachary C. E. Hawley,1,† Danae Campos-Melo,1,† Cristian A. Droppelmann,1 and Michael J. Strong
    Front Mol Neurosci. 2017; 10: 127.
    doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2017.00127

    Complex complexity

  7. 7
    Dionisio says:

    Considering the critical function of miRNAs in neuronal differentiation, function and survival, it is easy to speculate that every neuronal cell type has to have its own miRNA profile.

    Motor neurons in particular are highly specialized cells that require tight regulation of gene expression for their normal function, which is in a fundamental way accomplished by MotomiRs.

    In the past few years miRNAs have emerged as the next generation of potential biomarkers and therapeutic tools for neurodegenerative diseases.

    MotomiRs: miRNAs in Motor Neuron Function and Disease
    Zachary C. E. Hawley,1,† Danae Campos-Melo,1,† Cristian A. Droppelmann,1 and Michael J. Strong
    Front Mol Neurosci. 2017; 10: 127.
    doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2017.00127

    Complex complexity

  8. 8
    Dionisio says:

    […] we must first understand the transcriptome networks which are regulated by MotomiRs both in health and disease if we are to appreciate the complexity of this system within motor neurons.

    The field is still in its infancy, but the inclusion of large cohorts and specificity in the studies will certainly help to validate their use in the upcoming medicine era.

    MotomiRs: miRNAs in Motor Neuron Function and Disease
    Zachary C. E. Hawley,1,† Danae Campos-Melo,1,† Cristian A. Droppelmann,1 and Michael J. Strong
    Front Mol Neurosci. 2017; 10: 127.
    doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2017.00127

    Complex complexity

  9. 9
    Dionisio says:

    Naturally occurring antisense RNAs are small, diffusible, untranslated transcripts that pair to target RNAs at specific regions of complementarity to control their biological function by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level.

    It remains to be seen whether transcriptional interference or antisense regulation can regulate sense–antisense pairs […]

    Natural antisense RNAs as mRNA regulatory elements in bacteria: a review on function and applications
    Fatemeh Saberi,1 Mehdi Kamali,2 Ali Najafi,1 Alavieh Yazdanparast,3 and Mehrdad Moosazadeh Moghaddam
    Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2016; 21: 6.
    doi: 10.1186/s11658-016-0007-z

    Complex complexity

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