Is is said that in the USA one can criticize politics but not evolution, while in Russia one can criticize evolution but not politics. The Russian author Alexey Melkikh provides the most spectacular improbability of Darwinian evolution that I have seen. He then proposes a mode of evolution without mutation. As some readers have asked for more science based posts, enjoy. ————-
INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLE AND POSSIBLE DETERMINISTIC MECHANISM OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION Alexey V. Melkikh, (Ural state technical university, Molecular physics chair,) Entropy 2004, 6, 223–232
It was shown that the probability of new species formation by means of random mutations is negligibly small. . . . The problem is that the Darwin mechanism of the evolution (a random process) cannot explain the known rate of the species evolution. In accordance with the very first estimates, the total number of possible combinations of nucleotides in the DNA is about 4^(2×10^9) (because four types of nucleotides are available, while the number of nucleotides in the DNA of higher organisms is about 2×10^9). . . . Thus, finally we have P = 10^57000000. This figure is vanishingly small. Therefore, a conclusion may be drawn that species could not be formed due to random mutations.
If a molecular machine, which controls the evolution (with reference samples assigned a priori as thermodynamic forces), does not exist, then the Darwin evolution contradicts to the second law, since it represents a macroscopically oriented (from the simple to the complex) fluctuation.
Melkikh then explores a novel concept of evolution without mutation:
The program of such controlled genome changes can be incorporated in internal degrees of freedom of a
particle. Therefore, the algorithm of movement of an organism from one niche to another can be
presented as follows:
1. An organism scans the environment in search for nearest free niches.
2. If niches are found, the organism decides what niche is the most favorable to move to.
3. A step-by-step movement to the nearest niche begins. The space of attributes around the
organism (including the presence of other organisms) is measured each step.
4. The process continues until the organism occupies the wanted niche. After the number of
organisms in the niche reaches a certain value, the transition of other organisms to this
The algorithm will be executed until the control system decides that it is more favorable to
move to another neighboring niche.
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