They are complex special networks whose purpose is silencing other neurons:
Moritz Helmstaedter of the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt, asks a telling question: “So, is it primarily the fact that our brains are 1,000-fold larger, house 1000-fold more nerve cells that allows us to play chess and write children’s books, which mice arguably cannot do?”
In a just-published study that he led, the researchers examined human tissue removed by neurosurgeons during operations. Studying it, they discover neuron networks (connectomes) unknown in mouse brains:
Helmstaedter and his team have discovered that human cortical networks have evolved a novel neuronal network type that is essentially absent in mice. This neuronal network relies on abundant connections between inhibitory interneurons… “This suggests to us an almost ten-fold expansion of an interneuron-to-interneuron network,” says Sahil Loomba, one of the studies’ lead authors. – Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, “Silence for Thought: Special Interneuron Networks in the Human Brain” at Sciencedaily (June 23, 2022) The paper requires a fee or subscription.
The interesting part is that this network exists mainly in order to silence other neurons…News, “The human brain has neural networks not found in lab mice” at Mind Matters News (June 29, 2022)
Takehome: Researchers theorize that these interneuron networks help us focus on complex tasks where we must keep many different factors in play.
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