University of Kyoto scientists found that they can indeed remember, provided they live in the same household:
But cats recognize their names as signals, not as abstractions. They likely recognize other cats’ names as signals in the same way.
We humans recognize our names both as signals and as abstractions. You may see your name on a bill. That’s a signal: Pay this. But you may also see your name on an old photo. You know it’s about you but it’s not a signal that you should do anything. It’s an abstraction around your identity.
Cats are more intelligent than they have been given credit for in the past but they don’t do abstractions. To the extent that a cat recognizes his own name or another cat’s name, he interprets it as a signal that attention is being paid and that something may happen.News, “Why cats can remember other cats’ names” at Mind Matters News (May 18, 2022)
Takehome: The researchers are unsure exactly how cats remember other cats’ names. But that may not be a great mystery if we keep in mind what is involved.
You may also wish to read: In what ways are cats intelligent? Cats have nearly twice as many neurons as dogs and a bigger and more complex cerebral cortex.