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Modern human behaviour stems from lower testosterone levels?

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From Phys.org:

A new study appearing Aug. 1 in the journal Current Anthropology finds that human skulls changed in ways that indicate a lowering of testosterone levels at around the same time that culture was blossoming.

“The modern human behaviors of technological innovation, making art and rapid cultural exchange probably came at the same time that we developed a more cooperative temperament,” said lead author Robert Cieri, a biology graduate student at the University of Utah who began this work as a senior at Duke University.

The study, which is based on measurements of more than 1,400 ancient and modern skulls, makes the argument that human society advanced when people started being nicer to each other, which entails having a little less testosterone in action.

Heavy brows were out, rounder heads were in, and those changes can be traced directly to testosterone levels acting on the skeleton, according to Duke anthropologist Steven Churchill, who supervised Cieri’s work on a senior honors thesis that grew to become this 24-page journal article three years later. More.

It sounds just too “feminist studies”/sorry “womanist studies/sorry again, daytime TV” to be true. But hey…

See also: The Science Fictions series at your fingertips (human evolution) for what we really know so far about human evolution.

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LoL! AVS is back with more of its evidence-free and substance-free drivel. How nice. How's the unguided evolutionary research coming, AVS?
Protein synthesis is based entirely on chemistry, as was the evolution of the process.
Unfortunately for AVS there still isn't any research that supports that claim. Joe
as to AVS's claim:
"Protein synthesis is based entirely on chemistry, as was the evolution of the process."
Actually proteins are now known to be dominated by 'quantum' forces and not merely by classical chemical forces as was ignorantly thought in the past:
Myosin Coherence Excerpt: Quantum physics and molecular biology are two disciplines that have evolved relatively independently. However, recently a wealth of evidence has demonstrated the importance of quantum mechanics for biological systems and thus a new field of quantum biology is emerging. Living systems have mastered the making and breaking of chemical bonds, which are quantum mechanical phenomena. Absorbance of frequency specific radiation (e.g. photosynthesis and vision), conversion of chemical energy into mechanical motion (e.g. ATP cleavage) and single electron transfers through biological polymers (e.g. DNA or proteins) are all quantum mechanical effects. http://www.energetic-medicine.net/bioenergetic-articles/articles/63/1/Myosin-Coherence/Page1.html Coherent Intrachain energy migration at room temperature - Elisabetta Collini and Gregory Scholes - University of Toronto - Science, 323, (2009), pp. 369-73 Excerpt: The authors conducted an experiment to observe quantum coherence dynamics in relation to energy transfer. The experiment, conducted at room temperature, examined chain conformations, such as those found in the proteins of living cells. Neighbouring molecules along the backbone of a protein chain were seen to have coherent energy transfer. Where this happens quantum decoherence (the underlying tendency to loss of coherence due to interaction with the environment) is able to be resisted, and the evolution of the system remains entangled as a single quantum state. http://www.scimednet.org/quantum-coherence-living-cells-and-protein/
Even molecular machines are found to be dominated by quantum forces:
Persistent dynamic entanglement from classical motion: How bio-molecular machines can generate non-trivial quantum states - November 2011 Excerpt: We also show how conformational changes can be used by an elementary machine to generate entanglement even in unfavorable conditions. In biological systems, similar mechanisms could be exploited by more complex molecular machines or motors. http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.2126
Here is a analysis of the preceding paper:
Quantum entanglement in hot systems - 2011 Excerpt: The authors remark that this reverses the previous orthodoxy, which held that quantum effects could not exist in biological systems because of the amount of noise in these systems.,,, Environmental noise here drives a persistent and cyclic generation of new entanglement.,,, In summary, the authors say that they have demonstrated that entanglement can recur even in a hot noisy environment. In biological systems this can be related to changes in the conformation of macromolecules. http://quantum-mind.co.uk/quantum-entanglement-hot-systems/
Protein folding is also found to be a quantum process not a classical process:
Physicists Discover Quantum Law of Protein Folding – February 22, 2011 Quantum mechanics finally explains why protein folding depends on temperature in such a strange way. Excerpt: First, a little background on protein folding. Proteins are long chains of amino acids that become biologically active only when they fold into specific, highly complex shapes. The puzzle is how proteins do this so quickly when they have so many possible configurations to choose from. To put this in perspective, a relatively small protein of only 100 amino acids can take some 10^100 different configurations. If it tried these shapes at the rate of 100 billion a second, it would take longer than the age of the universe to find the correct one. Just how these molecules do the job in nanoseconds, nobody knows.,,, Their astonishing result is that this quantum transition model fits the folding curves of 15 different proteins and even explains the difference in folding and unfolding rates of the same proteins. That's a significant breakthrough. Luo and Lo's equations amount to the first universal laws of protein folding. That’s the equivalent in biology to something like the thermodynamic laws in physics. http://www.technologyreview.com/view/423087/physicists-discover-quantum-law-of-protein/
Supplemental notes
Quantum states in proteins and protein assemblies: The essence of life? - STUART HAMEROFF, JACK TUSZYNSKI Excerpt: It is, in fact, the hydrophobic effect and attractions among non-polar hydrophobic groups by van der Waals forces which drive protein folding. Although the confluence of hydrophobic side groups are small, roughly 1/30 to 1/250 of protein volumes, they exert enormous influence in the regulation of protein dynamics and function. Several hydrophobic pockets may work cooperatively in a single protein (Figure 2, Left). Hydrophobic pockets may be considered the “brain” or nervous system of each protein.,,, Proteins, lipids and nucleic acids are composed of constituent molecules which have both non-polar and polar regions on opposite ends. In an aqueous medium the non-polar regions of any of these components will join together to form hydrophobic regions where quantum forces reign. http://www.tony5m17h.net/SHJTQprotein.pdf Proteins with cruise control provide new perspective: Excerpt: “A mathematical analysis of the experiments showed that the proteins themselves acted to correct any imbalance imposed on them through artificial mutations and restored the chain to working order.” http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S22/60/95O56/
The preceding is solid confirmation that far more complex quantum information must reside along the entire protein complex than meets the eye. The calculus equations used for ‘cruise control’, that must somehow reside within the quantum information that is ‘constraining’ the entire protein structure to its ‘normal’ state, is anything but ‘discrete classical information’. For a sample of the equations that must be dealt with, to ‘engineer’ even a simple process control loop, i.e. cruise control, along a entire protein structure, please see this following site:
PID controller Excerpt: A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems. A PID controller attempts to correct the error between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint by calculating and then outputting a corrective action that can adjust the process accordingly and rapidly, to keep the error minimal. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PID_controller
Of note:
Quantum Entanglement and Information Quantum entanglement is a physical resource, like energy, associated with the peculiar nonclassical correlations that are possible between separated quantum systems. Entanglement can be measured, transformed, and purified. A pair of quantum systems in an entangled state can be used as a quantum information channel to perform computational and cryptographic tasks that are impossible for classical systems. The general study of the information-processing capabilities of quantum systems is the subject of quantum information theory. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qt-entangle/
It is very interesting to note that quantum entanglement, which conclusively demonstrates that ‘information’ in its pure 'quantum form' is completely transcendent of any time and space constraints, should be found in molecular biology on such a massive scale, for how can the quantum entanglement 'effect' in biology possibly be explained by a material (matter/energy) 'cause' when the quantum entanglement 'effect' falsified material particles as its own 'causation' in the first place? (A. Aspect, A. Aspect) Appealing to the probability of various configurations of material particles, as Darwinism does, simply will not help since a timeless/spaceless cause must be supplied which is beyond the capacity of the material particles themselves to supply! To give a coherent explanation for an effect that is shown to be completely independent of any time and space constraints one is forced to appeal to a cause that is itself not limited to time and space! i.e. Put more simply, you cannot explain a effect by a cause that has been falsified by the very same effect you are seeking to explain! Improbability arguments of various 'special' configurations of material particles, which have been a staple of the arguments against neo-Darwinism, simply do not apply since the cause is not within the material particles in the first place! Quote:
The vastness, beauty, orderliness, of the heavenly bodies, the excellent structure of animals and plants; and the other phenomena of nature justly induce an intelligent and unprejudiced observer to conclude a supremely powerful, just, and good author. — Robert Boyle (1627 - 1691), father of experimental chemistry
AVS "Protein synthesis is based entirely on chemistry, as was the evolution of the process." That's like saying the components of an automobile are defined by their rubber tires, metal frame, plastic interior parts, the liquid chemical fuel and electrical charge running throughout it's networks. The intelligence of the manufacturer or the later purchase of a driver who intelligently operates the vehicle have nothing to do with the operation the Car. UB "You clearly do not even care about it." The only trump card he has tucked away is his clever ability at dismissal followed up by smartassism. Not that it really helps his argument [which he could care less about anyway] , but it helps him continue to believe his pathetic worldview is still intact. Beyond that you will always get a response of Lah Lah Lah Lah Lah, as he installs ear plugs and blinds with his hands, all the while saying I can't hear you I can't hear you. I'm actually surprised you have that much patience with these burden shifters who demand you prove their religion to them. DavidD
Which amino acids actually correspond to a certain codon is unimportant and an arbitrary “decision” made in the process of chemical evolution.
AVS, it would be entirely too easy to ask how your "chemical evolution" scenario "decided" these "arbitrary" relationships. We could all stand back and marvel as you fumble about, without a single demonstrable fact to illustrate your claim (which is the core requirement of science). But what is the point, particularly given the demonstration of your ineptitude in the previous exchange. The simple fact remains, you do not deserve the trust of the public who endows science with its authority. You clearly do not even care about it. You should get out of the business, if for no other reason than being an obvious failure at it. Upright BiPed
Well have a lovely night. I can't seem to find this place funny anymore, only sad. I'll let you guys know if I see any progress being made by the creationist side over here in the real world, doesn't look like it though. AVS
You provided a link to one of your long-winded responses that upon close examination don't actually say anything important. The codon-amino acid link is a necessity in maintaining repeatable protein synthesis. Which amino acids actually correspond to a certain codon is unimportant and an arbitrary "decision" made in the process of chemical evolution. Protein synthesis is based entirely on chemistry, as was the evolution of the process. AVS
If you are having a hard time remembering the exchange, here is the relevant text from that conversation: AVS: The transcription and translation processes are entirely based on chemistry. Can you explain why functional sequence specific DNA cannot be reduced to chemistry? UB: Because there is a chemical discontinuity between the nucleic medium and the amino acid effect that must be preserved in order for translation to be obtained. AVS: And what is this chemical discontinuity exactly, Upright? UB: There is nothing you can do to the nucleic pattern GCA to relate it to Alanine, except translate it. Which is what the cell does. AVS: It’s related by another nucleic pattern, bound to alanine, that has a specific sequence that associates with that GCA. UB: The base pairing that enables transcription between nucleotides does not establish a relationship to alanine. That relationship is established by the protein aaRS before the transfer RNA ever enters the ribosome. UB: AVS, is there an inexorable chemical relationship between pattern GCA and alanine, or is it a contingent relationship? AVS: But there is a relationship. You just explained it. The amino acid is associated with the aaRS, which associates with tRNA, which associates with mRNA. This relationship is the product of the evolution of these molecules. UB: Correct. The relationship is established in spatial and temporal isolation by the protein aaRS. So, there is a physical discontinuity between the nucleic pattern and the amino acid, which is contingent on the structure of the protein aaRS. Therefore, there is nothing about the pattern that determines the amino acid, and consequently, chemistry cannot explain the association. It can only explain the operation of the system with the association in place. AVS: The association of the tRNA with aaRS determines the amino acid as I said. The chemical evolution that occurred would explain the why these molecules associate in our cells now, an ultimately arbitrary decision, driven by chemical interactions that occurred in early cells. UB: The cells decided huh? cool AVS, there is a chemical discontinuity between the nucleic medium and the amino acid effect, and that discontinuity must be preserved in order for translation to be obtained. Do you know why? (…think about it) AVS: That chemical discontinuity between nucleotide and protein is bridged by more chemical interactions though, UB, which as I said are the product of evolution. Yes the cells “decided” for lack of a better word. This is one of the problems with you guys, scientists try to put things in the simplest terms an you completely blow these terms out of proportion. UB: I’m glad you now recognize the discontinuity. My question is: Do you know why it’s there, and why the system must preserve it during translation? (hint: it’s not evolution) AVS: It is evolution UB. Early organisms evolved this translating system to carry out more diverse functions with better efficiency. The system we see today is the result of the chemical evolution that occurred in these early organisms and has been conserved to this day. UB: This is not an answer to the question. Do you know why it’s there, and why the system must preserve it during translation? There is an identifiable reason. What is it? AVS: UB, there obviously needs to be a connection to nucleotide and amino acid that is conserved. The system we have been talking about does this and it does this based on chemical interactions. And the evolution of this system was based on chemical interactions. That’s it. Make your point already. UB: AVS, I was giving you the benefit of the doubt, hoping you could think for yourself. Why would a physical discontinuity be required in a chemo/mechanical system in order to get a particular amino acid presented at the peptide binding site? Why would such a system need to preserve that discontinuity in order to produce the effect? … The physical effect of having a particular amino acid presented at a binding site at a particular point in time is not something that can be derived from physical law – it’s not some innate property to be drawn from, or activated in, the atomic composition of matter. So a discontinuity will naturally exist in any system that produces such an effect. That discontinuity is required in order to allow the input of formal constraint (information) into the system, where it can produce an effect that operates under physical law, but is not determined by it. In other words, it’s an operational necessity to achieve the result. And the system must preserve that discontinuity for much the same reason. From a purely mechanical standpoint, if the effect were derivable directly from the physical properties of the medium, then it would be so by the forces of inexorable law, and those inexorable forces would limit the system to what can be physically derived from that medium, thus making the input of form (not derived from that medium) impossible to achieve. However, incorporating the discontinuity by preserving it allows the effect to be determined by a second arrangement of matter operating in the system. This second arrangement establishes a local relationship between the medium and its effect (bridging the discontinuity while preserving it). This relationship then becomes an identifiable regularity of the system, allowing the system the capacity to produce lawful effects not determined by physical law. UB: …by the way. This entire arrangement is a necessary precondition of the genotype-phenotype distinction. It must be in place prior to the onset of Darwinian evolution. To say this system is the product of Darwinian avolution, is to say that a thing that does not yet exist on a pre-biotic earth can cause something to happen. Which is obviously false. Upright BiPed
I asked if you now understood "why the genetic translation system must preserve the physicochemical discontinuity between the arrangement of nucleotides in DNA and the presentation of specific amino acids during protein synthesis?". I also provided a direct link to your last attempt to wrestle with that question, as well as the actual answer to the question. So, do you now understand why the system is the way it is, or do you intend on simply ignoring the observation? Given your retort, it would appear that you intend the latter. Upright BiPed
Does yours now? Care to explain exactly what your question is, in the most simplest of terms? AVS
Ditto. The distinction of course, is that my question stems from empirical observation of the physical systems operating inside the cell, while your question stems from rhetoric. Upright BiPed
I'll take that as a no I guess. AVS
AVS, Do you now understand why the genetic translation system must preserve the physicochemical discontinuity between the arrangement of nucleotides in DNA and the presentation of specific amino acids during protein synthesis? Upright BiPed
Long time no see guys, how are things on cloud 9? Any recent breakthroughs in your "scientific research?" AVS

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