advertisement

Curriculum Guide: Physics 30 Core Unit I:Kinematics and Dynamics Foundational Objectives for Physics and the Common Essential Learnings In this unit students will increase their abilities to: Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of using a systematic, organized, logical, and structured approach towards solving kinematics problems in physics. Perform activities to collect and analyze data on objects in motion. Make reasonable numerical estimates when solving problems. Participate in group discussions and work cooperatively with others. Transfer an understanding of kinematics to familiar experiences and practical applications. Assess technological developments for their appropriateness, economic benefits, health issues, and their impact on the environment. Conduct risk analysis to explore the impact of technology on society and on the environment. Use a wide range of possibilities for developing their knowledge of the major concepts within physics. (COM) Develop an understanding of how knowledge is obtained, evaluated, refined and changed within physics. (CCT) Strengthen their knowledge and understanding of how to compute, measure, estimate and interpret mathematical data, when to apply these skills and techniques, and why these processes apply within the particular framework of physics. (NUM) Access knowledge. (IL) A. Understanding Motion Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define the following terms: uniform motion, non-uniform motion, stroboscope. Explain the conditions under which an object is considered to be in motion. Understand that motion is measured over some duration of time. Recognize that periodic motion can be used to measure time. Compare uniform and non-uniform motion. B. Vector and Scalar Quantities Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Define the following terms: vector quantity, scalar quantity, resultant vector, vector resolution, equivalent vectors, collinear vectors. Identify vector and scalar quantities. Distinguish between vector and scalar quantities. Give examples of vector and scalar quantities. Make reasonable numerical estimates when solving problems. Explain or demonstrate an understanding of the following important concepts: a resultant vector, vector addition, resolving a vector into components. Represent vector quantities on neat, accurate scale diagrams. Add two or more collinear vectors algebraically and graphically to determine the resultant vector. Identify collinear and non-collinear vectors. Identify equivalent vectors. Solve problems involving collinear vectors. Recognize that situations involving vectors can be analyzed graphically and mathematically. Recognize that graphical methods of solving vector problems help to conceptualize abstract situations and provide a good first approximation for mathematical methods. Demonstrate an understanding of vector addition and subtraction in two dimensions. Determine the magnitude and the direction of a resultant vector, both graphically and mathematical- ly, given any two or more vectors acting in two dimensions. Demonstrate an understanding that both magnitude and direction must be stated to specify vector quantities. Recognize situations which require the use of vector methods, and apply those methods correctly. Illustrate the different results that vector and scalar operations yield. Explain that vectors act independently of one another. Apply mathematical concepts such as the Pythagorean Theorem and trigonometric relationships in solving vector problems. Resolve a vector into the effective values of two independent component vectors. Determine the resultant vector of two or more non-perpendicular vectors acting in two dimensions using the vector component method. Recognize that alternative techniques that can be used in solving problems involving vectors serve as an important means of verification. Solve a variety of different types of problems in physics involving vectors in two dimensions. C. Distance and Displacement Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. Define the following terms: position, reference point, number line, displacement, equivalent displacements, distance, negative vector. 2. Distinguish among position, displacement, and distance. 3. Specify a position along a number line from an arbitrary origin. 4. Identify equivalent displacement vectors. 5. Represent displacement vectors on scale drawings. 6. Add displacement vectors algebraically and graphically. 7. Determine the displacement of an object on a velocity versus time graph or a position versus time graph. 8. Solve problems related to position, displacement, and distance. 9. Express the correct SI fundamental or derived units for different types of physical quantities. 10. Demonstrate the correct use of SI units and their corresponding prefixes. D. Speed and Velocity Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Define the following terms: speed, velocity, average speed, average velocity, instantaneous speed, instantaneous velocity. Distinguish among: speed and velocity; velocity, average velocity, and instantaneous velocity; speed, average speed, and instantaneous speed. Calculate speed, average speed, velocity and average velocity. Recognize the situations in which it is essential to differentiate between speed and velocity. Construct a position versus time graph or a displacement versus time graph of a moving object. Interpret the type of motion depicted by a displacement versus time graph or a position versus time graph. Extract numerical information from charts, tables, and graphs. Interpret position versus time graphs or displacement versus time graphs to determine positions at specific instants in time. Analyze position versus time graphs or displacement versus time graphs to determine velocity, average velocity, and instantaneous velocity. 10. Solve problems relating to speed and velocity. 11. Estimate the velocity of various moving objects. 12. Determine the slope on a graph and derive the correct units depending on the physical quantities which have been plotted on the graph. E. Acceleration Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Define the following terms: acceleration, average acceleration, instantaneous acceleration. State the SI units for displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Distinguish between uniform and non-uniform acceleration. Give examples of objects undergoing constant acceleration. Determine the average velocity of an object graphically and algebraically. Estimate the instantaneous acceleration of an object graphically. Distinguish between positive and negative acceleration. Recognize situations which illustrate an acceleration of zero. Analyze velocity versus time graphs to determine acceleration, average acceleration, and instantaneous acceleration. Analyze velocity versus time graphs to determine an object's displacement during specified time intervals. Interpret velocity versus time graphs to determine the velocity of an object at specific instants in time. Obtain instantaneous accelerations from a velocity versus time graph and use them to develop an acceleration versus time graph. Recognize that the equations for uniformly accelerated motion can be derived from first principles. Solve problems involving acceleration using the equations for uniformly accelerated motion. Use a velocity versus time graph to develop a displacement versus time graph and an acceleration versus time graph. Use graphs to analyze various kinds of physical phenomena. Interpret and apply ratios, proportions, percentages, and other mathematical concepts correctly. Relate an understanding of acceleration to familiar experiences and practical applications. F. Newton's Laws of Motion Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Define the following terms: inertia, free body diagram, unbalanced force, net force, inertial mass. Explain what is meant by inertia. State that mass is a measure of inertia. State Newton's laws of motion. Provide examples, illustrations, or applications of Newton's laws of motion. Explain what is meant by an unbalanced force. Analyze situations involving balanced and unbalanced forces on various objects with the aid of free body diagrams. 8. Recognize the importance of free body diagrams in analyzing problems in physics dealing with statics and dynamics. 9. Suggest some practical examples which illustrate the need for a thorough understanding of Newton's Laws of motion . 10. Transfer an understanding of vector addition in one or two dimensions to applications involving Newton's laws of motion. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Solve problems involving Newton's laws of motion. Predict the direction of acceleration on an object, given the direction of the unbalanced force. Predict the direction of the unbalanced force acting on an object, given the direction of the acceleration. Interpret direct and inverse relationships, as they occur in Newton's second law. Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the SI unit of force and the corre- sponding fundamental units. 16. Explain how the inertial mass of an object can be determined. Core Unit II: Mechanical Energy Foundational Objectives for Physics and the Common Essential Learnings In this unit students will increase their abilities to: Demonstrate an awareness and sensitivity to environmental issues. Recognize the importance of developing an understanding of energy. Appreciate that different cultures may regard certain issues differently. Recognize the impact that science and technology have on other realms. Act responsibly as scientifically literate individuals in helping to shape public opinion. Recognize the impact of technology on human lifestyles and on the environment. Promote both intuitive, imaginative thought and the ability to evaluate ideas, processes, experiences and objects in physics in meaningful contexts. (CCT) Strengthen their understanding within physics through applying knowledge of numbers and their interrelationships. (NUM) Develop their appreciation of the value and limitations of technology within society. (TL) Understand and use the vocabulary, structures and forms of expression which characterize physics. (COM) Develop into compassionate, empathetic and fair-minded people who can make positive contributions to society as individuals and as members of groups. (PSVS) Access knowledge. (IL) A. Work Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. Define the following terms: applied force, work, energy, positive work, negative work. Distinguish between positive work and negative work. Recognize any of the following situations in which no work is performed on an object: o a force is applied but no displacement occurs, o the displacement acts perpendicular to an applied force, o an object undergoes a displacement with no applied force acting on it. 4. Determine the component of an applied force that acts in the same direction as the displacement. 5. Express the correct SI fundamental or derived units for work, energy, and various other types of physical quantities. 6. State that work is a scalar quantity. 7. Calculate work graphically from an applied force versus displacement graph. 8. Give examples to illustrate how energy is transferred from one object to another when work is done. 9. Recognize that when an energy transformation takes place, not all of the energy is used to produce useful work. Some of the energy is converted into heat or other types of energy. 10. Solve problems involving work and energy. B. Power Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Define the following terms: power, horsepower. State the SI units, as well as other units, used to measure power. Recognize that, even though the SI system is the preferred system of measurement in science, in certain applications it is necessary to be familiar with other non-SI units of measurement. Solve problems involving work, power, and energy. C. Kinetic Energy Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define the following terms: (bulk) kinetic energy, elastic collision, inelastic collision. Distinguish between an elastic collision and an inelastic collision. Show how the fundamental units for kinetic energy or potential energy are related to the derived units (J) for energy. Solve problems relating to kinetic energy. Give examples of elastic collisions and inelastic collisions in nature. D. Gravitational Potential Energy Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Define the following terms: gravitational potential energy, base level, ground level, total mechanical energy. Distinguish between ground level and an arbitrary base level. Recognize that as an object is raised vertically, the work done on the object results in an equivalent increase in gravitational potential energy. Solve problems relating to gravitational potential energy, and to its relationship with kinetic energy and total mechanical energy Core Unit III: Electricity Foundational Objectives for Physics and the Common Essential Learnings In this unit students will increase their abilities to: Interpret information about electric circuits from schematic diagrams. Demonstrate an ability to develop and manipulate a variety of relationships when solving problems. Apply an understanding of concepts dealing with electricity to common experiences and practical applications. Recognize the importance of safety when working with electrical equipment. Perform a variety of activities to investigate electricity. Determine ways in which electrical energy can be conserved. Consider some of the implications of increased energy demands in the future. Use inductive and deductive reasoning when solving problems in physics. Understand and use the vocabulary, structures and forms of expression which characterize physics. (COM) Understand the uses and abuses of mathematical concepts in everyday life. (NUM) Promote both intuitive, imaginative thought and the ability to evaluate ideas, processes, experiences and objects in physics in meaningful contexts. (CCT) Appreciate the value and limitations of technology within society. (TL) Treat themselves and others with respect. (PSVS) A. Applications Of the following applications, at least three should be covered in Core Unit III. These applications can either be treated separately, or preferably integrated into other key concepts about electricity. Furthermore, consideration of these or any other applications in physics should be treated with an emphasis which helps to develop the science, technology, society, and environment (STSE) thrust of the curriculum. Whenever opportunities arise to develop STSE interrelationships (Dimension D), they should be pursued. Treatment of the historical context of these applications and developments is encouraged, to put the study of physics into its proper social and historic framework. Students should also be aware that many outstanding achievements in science and other realms of human experience occurred when individuals deviated from accepted norms and practices, bound only by their imagination, often in spite of strong opposition and persecution. aurora borealis cathode ray tubes comet trails commercial electrical generation door chimes electric bells electric generators electric meters electric motors electrical power distribution networks galvanoscopes lifting electromagnets lightning mass spectrographs monorail transit systems navigation techniques radio, television, and other communication devices railguns relays solenoid switches sound speakers superconductors transformers B. Current and Potential Difference 1. Current Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. Define the following terms: elementary charge, electric circuit, electric current, ammeter, schematic diagram, direct current, alternating current. 2. State the main ideas in the fundamental law of electric charges. 3. State the SI unit for electric charge. 4. Apply the relationship between the quantity of charge (Q) on an object and the number of elementary charges (N) to solve problems. 5. State the SI fundamental unit for current. 6. Solve problems relating to electric current. 7. Explain current in terms of electron flow. 8. State the name of a device that can be used to measure electric current in a circuit. 9. Identify some symbols used on schematic diagrams. 10. Draw a schematic diagram of an electric circuit. 11. Explain how schematic diagrams can be used. 12. Explain the difference between direct and alternating current. 2. Electric Potential Difference Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Define the following terms: electric field, positive test charge, electric lines of force, chassis ground, electric potential difference. State the convention used to represent electric lines of force in an electric field. Explain what happens to a charge in an electric field. Explain that work is done on a charge in an electric field if the electric force causes the charge to move from one point to another. Explain that the magnitude of the work done in moving the charge is a measure of the difference in potential between two points. State and apply correctly the units used to measure electric potential difference. Recognize that some symbols used in physics can occasionally represent different things, when they are used in different contexts. Solve problems involving electric potential difference. Illustrate relationships that exist between various fundamental and derived units in physics. Recognize that a decrease in energy when a charge moves through a circuit results in a drop in electric potential. Explain that there is a zero potential difference between a ground and the rest of the circuit. Distinguish between a positive and a negative electric potential difference. Identify the instrument which is used to measure electric potential difference in an electric circuit. Show the correct method for connecting a voltmeter in an electric circuit. Explain how the terminals of both a voltmeter and an ammeter must be connected in an electric circuit. Develop different relationships when solving problems relating to electric potential difference. 3. Ohm's Law Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Define the following terms: resistance, conductance, superconductivity, resistivity. Recognize that a relationship exists between the potential difference and the current in an electric circuit. State Ohm's Law. Apply Ohm's Law to problems in electricity. Use the correct units and symbol for resistance. Identify four factors which influence the resistance of a cylindrical resistor. Express the proportionality statements for each factor which influences the resistance of a cylindrical resistor. Express the correct units for the resistivity of a material. Solve problems relating to the factors which influence the resistance of a cylindrical resistor. C. Electric Circuits 1. Kirchhoff's Laws Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Recognize that Kirchhoff's Laws are applications of the Law of Conservation of Energy, and the Law of Conservation of Charge. State Kirchhoff's First Law (Kirchhoff's Current Law). State Kirchhoff's Second Law (Kirchhoff's Voltage Law). Use Kirchhoff's Laws to assist in understanding the transfer of energy through electric circuits. Use Kirchhoff's Laws to solve problems related to electrical circuit analysis. 2. Series and Parallel Circuits Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Define the following terms: series circuit, parallel circuit, equivalent resistance. Draw a schematic diagram of a series circuit and a parallel circuit. Recognize and apply mathematical expressions for current, potential difference, and resistance in series and parallel circuits. Determine an equivalent resistance to replace two or more resistors in an electric circuit. Apply an understanding of equivalent resistance in problem solving. Recognize the importance of using Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's Laws in analyzing electric circuits. D. Electric Power and Energy Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Define power. Express the correct units for power. Develop various different relationships for power in an electric circuit. Use a variety of expressions for electrical power to solve problems. Explain how the power rating on electrical appliances can assist a person in making wise decisions as a consumer. Explain why the joule is not normally used as a unit to measure electrical energy consumption. State two common units used to measure electrical energy consumption. Solve problems involving energy in electric circuits. Identify the main ways that are used to produce electric in Canada. Identify the impact each main method used to produce electricity has on the environment. Compare the main methods used to produce electricity in Canada and determine which are likely to be most and least desirable. Debate the choices selected. Suggest alternative methods of producing electricity which may have potential for future development. Understand overloading of circuits in the home (circuit breakers and fuses). Core Unit IV: Nuclear Physics Foundational Objectives for Physics and the Common Essential Learnings In this unit students will increase their abilities to: Recognize that when a scientific model fails to account for certain phenomena, the theory upon which it is based has to be revised or discarded in favour of more suitable theories. Recognize that people are constantly being exposed to radiation from natural and human-created sources. Recognize the potential danger of exposure to tissue and genetic material from radiation. Understand that controversy can develop when scientists or others do not agree on important science- related issues. Realize that scientists need to inform society of any real or potential abuse of science. Recognize that scientists have a moral responsibility to bring about peaceful and humanitarian uses for their discoveries. Assess different value positions and opinions held by scientists. Appreciate that research is still needed into the long-term biological effects of radiation. Defend a position which either supports or rejects the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Understand the personal, moral, social, and cultural aspects of physics. (PSVS) Use a wide range of possibilities for developing their knowledge of the major concepts within physics. (COM) Develop as "strong sense" critical and creative thinkers. (CCT) Become actively involved in decision-making related to technological developments. (TL) Develop a positive disposition to life-long learning. (IL) A. Natural Radioactivity Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Define the following terms: radioactivity, isotopes, alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, dosimetry, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, quality factor. State how radioactivity discovered. Identify some naturally occurring radioactive ores. Realize that radioactivity is found in both natural and artificial sources. Recognize that people are constantly being exposed to radiation from a variety of sources. Recognize that, although exposure to radioactivity is inevitable, it should be minimized. Develop a generalization based on atomic number regarding some radioactive elements. State the number of different types of radiation found in nature. Identify the composition of alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays. Compare the penetrating power, speed, potential danger, and other important characteristics of alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays. Identify common characteristics of all radioactive nuclides. Recognize and interpret some commonly used symbols for subatomic particles. Demonstrate the correct use of some commonly used symbols for subatomic particles. Recognize that radioactivity can not be detected by human senses. Suggest some important implications arising from the fact that radioactivity can not be detected by human senses. Identify one device that can be used to detect radioactivity. Identify some of the units that are used to measure radiation. Demonstrate an understanding of the units that are used to measure radiation. Recognize that absorbed radiation has different effects on different kinds of tissue. 20. Recognize that there is disagreement among scientists on the cumulative effects of low dosage exposure to radiation. 21. Understand that no exposure to radioactive emissions, for any period of time, should be regarded as being "safe" to humans or other living organisms. 22. Use SI fundamental and derived units and prefixes correctly. 23. Recognize that non-SI units are sometimes used. B. Nuclear Fission Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Define the following terms: fission, moderator, nuclear mass defect, chain reaction, enrichment, control rods, nuclear reactor, critical mass. Describe what happens during fission reaction. Recognize that slow-moving neutrons are more easily captured by the nucleus of an atom. Give an example of a substance which can act as a good moderator. Recognize that neutrons are released during fission. Recognize that a very large amount of energy is released during a fission reaction. Compare the amount of energy released during a fission reaction with the amount of energy released during the combustion of a typical fossil fuel. Explain how the neutrons released during a fission reaction can help to sustain the reaction. Explain why enrichment is used in preparing nuclear fuels. Recognize that a mass greater than the critical mass of fissionable material is needed to produce an uncontrollable chain reaction. Recognize the devastating destructive power present in nuclear weapons. Explain that nuclear weapons release radioactive fallout. Participate, as members of a scientifically literate society, in bringing about an end to the threat of nuclear war. C. Nuclear Reactors Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Describe how a nuclear reactor works. Identify the type of fuel used in a nuclear reactor. Outline the nuclear fuel cycle, from the initial mining of raw materials to the final storage of waste material. Recognize the role that Saskatchewan and Canada play in nuclear technology. Explain why a nuclear explosion is not possible in a nuclear reactor. Identify some of the main features of the CANDU nuclear reactor. Explain the purpose of using heavy water in CANDU reactors. Identify some of the safety features that have been designed into the CANDU nuclear reactor system. State some of the facts that supporters of the use of nuclear energy use to substantiate their position. 10. State some of the concerns that critics raise regarding the use of nuclear energy. 11. Suggest what concerns regarding the environment emerge as a result of the use of nuclear energy. 12. Suggest how environmental concerns regarding the use of non-nuclear methods of electrical generation might be alleviated with the use of nuclear energy. 13. Using a solid knowledge base of all of the previous outcomes, develop a position which either supports or rejects the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. 14. Defend a position which either supports or rejects the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. 15. Defend a position which either supports or rejects the use of nuclear energy for military purposes. Optional Unit V: Applications of Kinematics and Dynamics Foundational Objectives for Physics and the Common Essential Learnings In this unit students will increase their abilities to: Experience an improvement in problem solving ability through regular practice. Explain commonly experienced physical phenomena. Demonstrate an understanding of cause and effect. Demonstrate effective communication through reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Give examples which illustrate how scientific and technological developments often occur in response to social needs. Judge the importance and relevance of ideas to a topic. Apply independent learning skills to a wide variety of tasks. Explain relationships that exist between different things. Reduce complex problems into smaller, more manageable components. Support the development of a positive disposition to life-long learning. (IL) Use a wide range of possibilities for developing their knowledge of the major concepts within physics. (COM) Develop an understanding of how knowledge is obtained, evaluated, refined and changed within physics. (CCT) Strengthen their knowledge and understanding of how to compute, measure, estimate and interpret mathematical data, when to apply these skills and techniques, and why these processes apply within the particular framework of physics. (NUM) A. Momentum 1. Impulse and Momentum Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Define the following terms: momentum, impulse. Use the correct SI units for impulse momentum. Apply an understanding of vectors to momentum. Compare the directions of the momentum, impulse, force, and velocity vectors in a given situation. Recognize that an impulse acting on an object results in a change in momentum. State the relationship between the impulse of a force acting on an object and its change in momentum. 2. The Law of Conservation of Momentum Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define the following terms: isolated system, centre of mass. Recognize that the Law of Conservation of Momentum is one of the most fundamental principles in physics. Recognize that momentum is conserved in an isolated system in one or more dimensions. Apply mathematical expressions of the Law of Conservation of Momentum to problem solving . Recognize the significance of the centre of mass of an isolated system. B. Frictional Forces Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Define the following terms: limiting static frictional force, static friction, kinetic friction, normal force, centre of mass, coefficient, coefficient of kinetic friction, kinetic frictional force, coefficient of static friction, static friction, concurrent forces. Explain that frictional forces usually act to oppose motion. Give examples of some moving objects which will eventually come to rest due to friction. Explain that a sufficient force needs to be applied to an object before it will begin to move. Identify situations in which it is desirable to increase or reduce the amount of friction between surfaces in contact. Give examples of various ways in which frictional forces can either be increased or decreased. 7. 8. Explain that the normal force acts to oppose the force of gravity. Explain that the normal force must be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity for the object to remain in equilibrium. 9. Explain that the structure supporting an object must be capable of producing a normal force to withstand the force of gravity acting on the structure by the object, otherwise the structure will undergo failure. 10. Draw free body diagrams to illustrate forces acting concurrently through the centre of mass of an object. 11. Solve problems involving kinetic or static friction. 12. Compare the static and kinetic frictional forces acting on an object. C. Projectile Motion Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Define the following terms: acceleration due to gravity, projectile, firing angle, trajectory, frame of reference, and terminal velocity. Explain that mass will not substantially influence the motion of objects falling in a vacuum. State the approximate value of the acceleration due to gravity for an object falling freely near the surface of the Earth. State that an object dropped from rest experiences a downward acceleration. Explain that an object thrown vertically upward experiences a downward acceleration. Explain the effect of air resistance on falling bodies. Predict the motion that would be experienced by various different types of falling objects. Devise strategies for changing the terminal velocity of falling objects. Transfer knowledge of motion in one or two dimensions to realistic situations. Solve problems involving vertical free fall using equations for uniformly accelerated motion. Recognize that projectile motion can be analyzed by considering the horizontal and vertical components of the motion separately. Explain what factors affect the horizontal and vertical motion of a projectile. Apply kinematic equations for constant velocity to analyze the horizontal motion of a projectile. Apply kinematic equations for uniform acceleration to analyze the vertical motion of a projectile. Solve a variety of problems related to projectile motion. D. Uniform Circular Motion Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. Define the following terms: centripetal acceleration, centripetal force. Explain why an object travelling in a circular path at a constant speed undergoes a change in velocity. Illustrate the direction of the velocity vector, the centripetal acceleration vector, and the centripetal force vector for a moving object at a specific position on a circular path. 4. Use a vector diagram to illustrate a change in velocity when the magnitude of the velocity vector remains constant but the direction changes. 5. Recognize that if an object were suddenly released from its circular path, it would tend to continue to move in the direction of the velocity vector, unless it was acted upon by some external force. 6. Explain that centripetal acceleration acts in the same direction as the change in velocity. 7. Explain that centripetal force acts in the same direction as centripetal acceleration. 8. Use mathematical relationships for centripetal acceleration and centripetal force to solve problems involving circular motion. 9. Recognize that to place a satellite into orbit, it must be travelling such that the force of gravity acting on it (i.e., its weight) provides a force equivalent to the centripetal force needed to maintain its motion. 10. Explain that the orbital velocity of a satellite does not depend on the mass of the satellite. 11. Describe some useful applications of satellites. E. Universal Gravitation Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Define the following terms: field, force, mass, weight, gravitational field strength. State the correct SI units and symbols for force, mass, and weight. Describe the effects that a force can have when acting on an object. Identify important forces found in nature. Explain that force is a vector quantity. Describe the difference between mass and weight. Describe and compare how mass and weight can be determined. Demonstrate an understanding of a gravitational field. Describe methods of determining the gravitational field strength or gravitational mass at some point in space. Describe why slight variations in gravitational field strength are found on different places on the Earth. Compare the weight of a given object in different locations in space and on different celestial bodies. Solve problems relating to gravitational force. Interpret direct and inverse square law relationships, as illustrated by Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. Determine the gravitational force on an object at various distances, expressed in multiples of Earth radii, from the centre of the Earth. Explain how the gravitational mass of an object within a known gravitational field can be derived. Optional Unit VI: Fluid Mechanics Foundational Objectives for Physics and the Common Essential Learnings In this unit students will increase their abilities to: Perform a variety of activities involving fluid mechanics. Explain a variety of common phenomena by applying the principles of fluid mechanics. Solve problems related to fluid mechanics. Appreciate that an understanding of the basic principles of physics can be useful in understanding common and practical life experiences. Strengthen their knowledge and understanding of how to compute, measure, estimate and interpret mathematical data, when to apply these skills and techniques, and why these processes apply within the particular framework of physics. (NUM) Promote both intuitive, imaginative thought and the ability to evaluate ideas, processes, experiences and objects in physics in meaningful contexts. (CCT) Develop a contemporary view of technology. (TL) Use a wide range of possibilities for developing their knowledge of the major concepts within physics. (COM) Access knowledge. (IL) A. Density Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define the following terms: density, relative density (specific gravity). Recognize that density is a characteristic property of matter. State the SI unit for density. Solve problems based on an understanding of density. Apply concepts of length, mass, area, volume (etc.) to specific tasks. B. Pressure Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Define the following terms: pressure, standard atmospheric pressure, barometer, absolute pressure, gauge pressure. Demonstrate an understanding of accepted usage of units for pressure. Recognize other non-SI units for pressure that are in common use. Recognize that the historical development of ideas in science has often led to the adoption of accepted standards and conventions. (e.g., Torricelli's mercury column used to measure atmospheric pressure.) Solve problems related to pressure in fluids. Distinguish between absolute pressure and gauge pressure. C. Pascal's Principle Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define the following terms: manometer, hydraulics, hydraulic lift. State Pascal's principle. Give some examples which illustrate Pascal's principle. Explain why the output force on a hydraulic lift exceeds the input force. Solve problems involving Pascal's principle. D. Archimedes' Principle Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Define the following terms: buoyant force, apparent weight. State Archimedes' principle. Explain what factors would need to be considered in determining whether or not an object will float. Solve problems relating to Archimedes' principle. E. Bernoulli's Principle Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Define the following terms: streamlining, turbulence, whirlpools, eddies, drag. Compare streamlined and turbulent flow. Give some examples of streamlined objects. Explain why an incompressible fluid moving into a region having a different cross-sectional area will undergo a change in speed. Recognize the causal relationship between the change in speed of a fluid and the accompanying change in pressure. Provide an operational definition of Bernoulli's principle. Transfer an understanding of Bernoulli's principle to practical examples and common ex- periences. Solve problems involving Bernoulli's principle. Optional Unit VII: Electromagnetism Foundational Objectives for Physics and the Common Essential Learnings In this unit students will increase their abilities to: Explore the interrelationship between electricity and magnetism. Apply an understanding of concepts dealing with electricity and magnetism to common experiences and practical applications. Recognize the importance of safety when working with electrical equipment. Perform a variety of activities to investigate electromagnetism. Consider some of the implications of increased energy demands in the future. Understand and use the vocabulary, structures and forms of expression which characterize physics. (COM) Promote both intuitive, imaginative thought and the ability to evaluate ideas, processes, experiences and objects in physics in meaningful contexts. (CCT) Appreciate the value and limitations of technology within society. (TL) Meet their own learning needs. (IL) A. Magnetism Learning Outcomes 1. Define the following terms: ferromagnetic, soft ferromagnetic, hard ferromagnetic, compass, magnetic field, magnetic lines of force, north- seeking pole, angle of declination, south- seeking pole, angle of magnetic dip. 2. Describe some of the similarities that exist between electricity and magnetism. 3. Explain how a compass works. 4. State the Law of Magnetic Poles. 5. Recognize that conventions are determined by arriving at a consensus among scientists. 6. Recognize the importance of using conventions to communicate information in science. 7. State some important properties of magnetic lines of force. 8. Suggest a plausible explanation for the movement of the earth's magnetic field over time. 9. Apply an understanding of magnetism to common experiences and practical applications. 10. Investigate important uses of magnets in different technological applications. B. Electromagnetism Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Define the following terms: magnetic permeability, ferromagnetic . State that the direction of the magnetic field around a current-carrying conductor depends on the direction of current flow through the conductor. Illustrate that the magnetic field around a current-carrying conductor forms a series of concentric circles. Recognize the effect that increased distance away from the conductor has on the strength of the magnetic field. State Ampere's Rule (right-hand rule) for a straight conductor. Use the right-hand rule to determine the direction of the magnetic field lines or the direction of the current for a straight conductor. Explain that the strength of the magnetic field can be intensified by coiling the conductor into a loop. Describe the shape of the magnetic field formed in the region outside of a solenoid. State Ampere's Rule (right-hand rule) for a solenoid. Apply the right-hand rule for a solenoid to determine the direction of the current through the coil or the magnetic polarity of the coil. Recognize that the strength of the magnetic field of a solenoid can be increased enormously byusing a core with a high magnetic permeability. Identify other factors which affect the strength of the magnetic field of a solenoid. Transfer an understanding of electromagnetism to practical applications. Solve problems relating to electromagnetism. C. The Motor Principle Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. State the motor principle. State the right-hand rule for force on a conductor. Apply the right-hand rule for force on a conductor to determine the direction of force experienced on the conductor, the direction of the external magnetic field, or the direction of current flow through the conductor. Apply the motor principle to explain important applications such as electric meters or electric motors. Identify the main components of an electric motor. Explain how an electric motor works. Recognize important differences in the design of A.C. and D.C. motors. State several factors which affect the speed of rotation of an electric motor. D. Electromagnetic Induction Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Define the following terms: induce, induced field, inducing field. Identify the conditions which must occur before a current can be induced within a conductor. Recognize that maximum current is induced when the direction of movement of the conductor is perpendicular to that of the external magnetic field. Explain that the interaction between the induced and inducing magnetic fields produces a temporary change in the external magnetic field. State Lenz's Law. Recognize that Lenz's Law is consistent with the Law of Conservation of Energy. Apply Lenz's Law to investigate electromagnetic induction. Optional Unit VIII: Atomic Physics Foundational Objectives for Physics and the Common Essential Learnings In this unit students will increase their abilities to: Recognize that physics is an ongoing human endeavour. Recognize the need to remain informed on current research in science. Realize that scientists need to inform society of any real or potential abuse of science. Appreciate that research is still needed into the uses of nuclear energy. Recognize that people are constantly being exposed to various forms of radiation. Recognize that, although exposure to radioactivity is inevitable, it should be minimized. Recognize the potential hazards associated with exposure to certain types of radiation. Assess whether or not certain positions regarding the use of nuclear energy are based on a good understanding of physics. Recognize the need to become informed about the facts and issues surrounding the use of nuclear energy. Understand the personal, moral, social, and cultural aspects of physics. (PSVS) Use a wide range of possibilities for developing their knowledge of the major concepts within physics. (COM) Develop as "strong sense" critical and creative thinkers. (CCT) Become actively involved in decision-making related to technological developments. (TL) Develop a positive disposition to life-long learning. (IL) A. Atomic Theory Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Define the following terms: atomic number, isotope, radioisotopes, nuclear binding force, average binding energy, nuclear mass defect, nuclear binding energy, photon. Use the atomic number of an element to determine the number of protons in a nucleus. Infer the number of electrons in a neutral atom from the atomic number of an element. Use the atomic mass number and the atomic number to determine the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Recognize that isotopes of an element have similar chemical properties, but different physical properties. Give an example of an element which contains isotopes and show how those isotopes differ from each another. Explain that the average atomic mass of an element takes into account the relative proportions of its isotopes found in nature. Explain some of the important characteristics of the Bohr model of the atom. Identify, interpret, or explain the use of quantum numbers in orbital theory. Show how the Bohr model of the atom offered explanations for some physical phenomena, while failing to provide a suitable explanation for others. Explain how photons are used to describe the wave-particle duality of light. Explain that quantum theory helps to explain the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, and other important physical principles which earlier theories did not account for adequately. State that quantum theory describes a region surrounding the nucleus which has the highest probability of locating an electron. Describe some of the electron orbital descriptions provided by quantum theory. B. Half Life and Radioactive Decay Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Define the following terms: transmutation, alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay, neutrino, disintegration (decay) series, nuclide charts, background radiation, decay constant, half-life. Demonstrate an understanding of a nuclear transmutation process. Recognize that in a nuclear decay series, nuclear transmutations take place until a stable nucleus results. Explain that in alpha particle decay an element with a lower mass is formed. Explain that atomic mass number is conserved in alpha and beta particle decay. Explain that mass is not conserved in alpha and beta particle decay. Recognize that in beta particle decay the beta particle released originated in the nucleus of the atom, not in the electron orbital. A neutron disappears, and in its place a proton and an electron appear. Develop general expressions for alpha and beta decay. Identify alpha, beta, and gamma decay from generalized expressions or nuclear equations. Explain that energy is released during a nuclear transmutation. Recognize that mass is not conserved in nuclear reactions. Explain why mass is not conserved in a nuclear reaction. Determine the amount of nuclear binding energy which holds a nucleus together by comparing it to the nuclear mass defect that occurs in a nuclear reaction. Write equations representing nuclear decay. Balance nuclear equations correctly for atomic number and atomic mass number. Determine missing or incomplete information from a partially balanced equation for nuclear decay. Interpret information about a nuclear disintegration series from a nuclide chart. Explain what background radiation is and where it originates. Recognize that in trying to measure or observe important physical phenomena, the presence of "noise" may make it difficult to do. Recognize that each radioactive nuclide emits radioactivity at its own characteristic rate. Recognize that the rate of radioactive decay for a given nuclide is related to the energy change that accompanies the transformation. (They are related, but one does not depend on the other.) Explain that the rate of radioactive decay is directly proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. Recognize that the decay constant is a measure of the rate of radioactive decay. Recognize that the rate of decay of a radioactive nuclide is also measured and expressed by its half-life and its mean life. Determine the decay constant from the half-life and vice versa. State the correct units for half-life State the correct unit for the decay constant. Recognize that it is not possible to determine when an individual nucleus within a radioactive sample will undergo decay. Recognize that it is possible to determine the length of time needed for a certain proportion of the nuclei within a radioactive sample to decay. Recognize that the expressed relationships for the radioactive decay are based on statistics and probability, and on the examination of the behaviour of a large number of individual situations. C. Nuclear Fusion Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Define the following terms: fusion, thermonuclear, plasma, magnetic confinement, inertial confinement. Describe what happens during a fission reaction. Explain that nuclear fusion occurs within the sun and the stars. Recognize that scientists believe that nuclear fusion is possible under extremely high temperatures. State that fusion reactions produce no long-term waste products. Recognize that the fuel needed for a fusion reaction is abundant. Compare fusion and fission. Explain one possible way of sustaining a fusion reaction. Suggest the potential that fusion has for providing an abundant supply of energy. D. Applications Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Describe an application of nuclear energy (other than fusion reactors). Identify the type of fuel used in that application. Recognize the role that Saskatchewan and Canada play in that specific application of nuclear technology. Identify some of the main uses of the specific application of nuclear energy. Identify some of the safety precautions that need to be taken in the application being considered. State some of the facts that supporters of nuclear energy use to substantiate their position for the use of that application. 7. Identify some of the concerns that critics raise regarding the use of nuclear energy for the specific application. 8. Suggest what potential concerns regarding the environment emerge as a result of the use of nuclear energy for the application being considered. 9. Develop a position which either supports or rejects the use of nuclear energy for a specific application. 10. Defend a position which either supports or rejects the use of nuclear energy for a specific application. E. Contemporary Physics Learning Outcomes Students will increase their abilities to: 1. Recognize that new discoveries in physics are ongoing. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Appreciate that learning is a life-long endeavour. Research one or more specific topics in contemporary physics. Assess the potential applications of new discoveries in physics. Assess the potential benefits and risks of new discoveries in physics. Appreciate the role that technology plays in scientific endeavour.