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New theory on quantum physics emphasizes nonlocality



According to nonlocality, if any two entangled objects are sent in opposite directions and the state of one of them is altered, the second instantly alters its state in response no matter how far apart the two may be. Hobson cites direct experimental evidence supporting his analysis, from experiments performed in 1990 involving nonlocal observation of entangled pairs of photons.

“The strange thing is that the action happens instantly, with no time for light or an electromagnetic signal or radio signal to communicate between the two,” Hobson said. “It is a single object that is behaving as a single object but it is in two different places. It doesn’t matter what the distance is between them.”

Physicist Art Hobson’s solution is that the non-local “phenomenon must be taken into account to resolve the measurement problem”:

According to Hobson, since 1978, three previous published analyses have suggested similar solutions to the measurement problem, but the earlier solutions were little noticed at the time and the debate continued, “leading to confusion and even to pseudoscientific claims about the implications of quantum physics,” he said.

Whatever the “pseudo-scientific claims” may be, acceptance of non-locality is a serious blow to materialism.

Consider, for example, studies attempting to “find out how consciousness works” or “pinpoint consciousness in the brain.” If consciousness turns out to be a phenomenon that depends on the interactions of non-local particles like electrons, … a bigger waste of time than materialist attempts to understand it was never undertaken, unless you count trying to catch hold of one’s shadow.

Of course there are laws governing consciousness, laws we can probably discover. But often, discovering laws in stubborn situations means leaving behind the detritus of old ideas about how things must work.

Just as quantum mechanics introduced us to laws other than the ones we are used to, consciousness will likely do the same, and the two are likely related.

Paper: Art Hobson. Two-photon interferometry and quantum state collapse. Physical Review A, 2013; 88 (2) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.022105

Note: At the most basic level of its operations, the brain depends on electrons and therefore may well be a quantum-influenced system. See also The Spiritual Brain.

I wish "non-local physics" was taught at the community college level. Currently, quantum mechanics is the only version of non-locality being taught at the college level. Einstein's Special and General Relativity are "local" theories in that they map all motion into a spatial reference system, and limit the maximum speed of any physical effect to speeds less than that of light. However, experiments have shown that electric, magnetic, and gravitational fields have effects that occur so quickly the speed of propagation cannot even be measured. See: http://scripturalphysics.org/4v4a/ADVPROP.html#TheSpeedOfGravity http://scripturalphysics.org/4v4a/ADVPROP.html#SpeedOfElectricFields Additionally, numerous experiments of different experimental designs done by different groups over a span of several decades have demonstrated that our physical world is definitely a non-local one. This means that Relativity is limited to describing reference system effects only--useful but not fundamental. Technology over the years has made enormous progress. But a MAJOR part of science itself still seems to be stuck back in 1906. What happened? BrianFraser
For more about non-locality see: http://scripturalphysics.org/4v4a/ADVPROP.html#GeometrySpaceTimeMotion http://scripturalphysics.org/qm/qmconcpt.htm#ProblemOfQuantumLocality BrianFraser
Einstein, notwithstanding the inchoate development of his deist credo, was absolutely clear about one thing, fundamental to the monotheistic religions: that the world was designed by a Spirit with faculties of a totally awesome scope, quite beyond our imagination. And this is as important for the scientist to be capable of inferring, as it is, the clergyman, and the materialists' incapacity for it, is the reason why their conjecturing has proved so inept. God scatters the proud in the imagination of their hearts; clearly, one of God's decidedly less onerous accomplishments, given their endemic egotism. Axel
An IDer should ask a materialist on some forum, perhaps a debate, what grounds he can adduce, if indeed, he can, for suggesting that one of their sorry number would have discovered quantum physics. Is it not clear that he and his colleagues of the Consensus would have held back physics by some 80 years or so, and counting? If he replies in the affirmative, then ask him why they still neglect to give its paradigm precedence over their mechanistic paradigm. We know that in practice they certainly don't scruple to embrace QM, when forced by the demands of their work, yet in the matter of theory, absolutely refuse, for example, to acknowledge the totally unequivocal evidence provided by non-locality of theistic Creation. These are simple, but hard, questions that need answering by these rascals. Axel
The only paradigm they have produced of note is the great, overarching, materialist, exclusionary principle, marginalising, a priori, any findings which might lead to a divine Creator. And one cannot help but wonder just how direly the Great Deception, aka The Enlightenment, and the atheist/materialist desperadoes it has spawned, have held back science in every area. Apparently, the nincompoops tell their young groupies that it is IDers who are lacking in credentials, while the history of science demonstrates quite unequivocally that it is this atheist Consensus who have proved to be incompetent, upstart myrmidons (they've not improved since Einstein's day), forever running off at the mouth, disparaging ID duplicitously; while Catholic priest, Georges Lemaitre, whose conjecture of the Big Bang, and the QM of Max Planck, whose attribution to the Creator of the quantum reality, I cite below, are being vindicated again and again: 'As a man who has devoted his whole life to the most clear headed science, to the study of matter, I can tell you as a result of my research about atoms this much: There is no matter as such. All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force which brings the particle of an atom to vibration and holds this most minute solar system of the atom together. We must assume behind this force the existence of a conscious and intelligent mind. This mind is the matrix of all matter.' And those jackanapes have the gall to sneer at IDers as the hapless, numbskull losers that they are, themselves, in reality. They used to call Dr Ian Paisley, the Northern Ireland politican, Dr No. These numpties are a corporate (in more senses than one) Dr Nos. Totalitarian, (in)cognitive ostriches. It's high time they were given the 'bum's rush', and tarred and feathered into the bargain. I'm sorry if my tone is too bland and anodyne, but it has been difficult for me to strike the right balance. I fear I may have erred in my anxiety not to offend. Axel
Of related interest, Einstein was asked (by a philosopher):
"Can physics demonstrate the existence of 'the now' in order to make the notion of 'now' into a scientifically valid term?"
Einstein's answer was categorical, he said:
"The experience of 'the now' cannot be turned into an object of physical measurement, it can never be a part of physics." Quote was taken from the last few minutes of this following video: Stanley L. Jaki: "The Mind and Its Now" https://vimeo.com/10588094
The preceding statement was an interesting statement for Einstein to make since 'the now of the mind' has, from many recent experiments in quantum mechanics, undermined Einstein's General Relativity as to being the absolute frame of reference for reality. i.e. 'the now of the mind', contrary to what Einstein thought possible for experimental physics, according to advances in quantum mechanics, takes precedence over past events in time. Moreover, due to advances in quantum mechanics, it would now be much more appropriate to phrase Einstein's answer to the philosopher in this way:
"It is impossible for the experience of 'the now' to be divorced from physical measurement, it will always be a part of physics."
Perhaps the best experiment thus far for demonstrating that 'the now of the mind' takes precedence over past events in time is Wheeler's Delayed Choice experiment:
Wheeler's Classic Delayed Choice Experiment: Excerpt: Now, for many billions of years the photon is in transit in region 3. Yet we can choose (many billions of years later) which experimental set up to employ – the single wide-focus, or the two narrowly focused instruments. We have chosen whether to know which side of the galaxy the photon passed by (by choosing whether to use the two-telescope set up or not, which are the instruments that would give us the information about which side of the galaxy the photon passed). We have delayed this choice until a time long after the particles "have passed by one side of the galaxy, or the other side of the galaxy, or both sides of the galaxy," so to speak. Yet, it seems paradoxically that our later choice of whether to obtain this information determines which side of the galaxy the light passed, so to speak, billions of years ago. So it seems that time has nothing to do with effects of quantum mechanics. And, indeed, the original thought experiment was not based on any analysis of how particles evolve and behave over time – it was based on the mathematics. This is what the mathematics predicted for a result, and this is exactly the result obtained in the laboratory. http://www.bottomlayer.com/bottom/basic_delayed_choice.htm "Thus one decides the photon shall have come by one route or by both routes after it has already done its travel" John A. Wheeler Alain Aspect speaks on John Wheeler's Delayed Choice Experiment - video http://vimeo.com/38508798
Here’s a recent variation of Wheeler’s Delayed Choice experiment, which highlights the ability of the conscious observer to effect 'spooky action into the past', thus further solidifying consciousness's centrality in reality. Furthermore in the following experiment, the claim that past material states determine future conscious choices (determinism) is falsified by the fact that present conscious choices effect past material states:
Quantum physics mimics spooky action into the past - April 23, 2012 Excerpt: The authors experimentally realized a "Gedankenexperiment" called "delayed-choice entanglement swapping", formulated by Asher Peres in the year 2000. Two pairs of entangled photons are produced, and one photon from each pair is sent to a party called Victor. Of the two remaining photons, one photon is sent to the party Alice and one is sent to the party Bob. Victor can now choose between two kinds of measurements. If he decides to measure his two photons in a way such that they are forced to be in an entangled state, then also Alice's and Bob's photon pair becomes entangled. If Victor chooses to measure his particles individually, Alice's and Bob's photon pair ends up in a separable state. Modern quantum optics technology allowed the team to delay Victor's choice and measurement with respect to the measurements which Alice and Bob perform on their photons. "We found that whether Alice's and Bob's photons are entangled and show quantum correlations or are separable and show classical correlations can be decided after they have been measured", explains Xiao-song Ma, lead author of the study. According to the famous words of Albert Einstein, the effects of quantum entanglement appear as "spooky action at a distance". The recent experiment has gone one remarkable step further. "Within a naïve classical world view, quantum mechanics can even mimic an influence of future actions on past events", says Anton Zeilinger. http://phys.org/news/2012-04-quantum-physics-mimics-spooky-action.html
In other words, if my conscious choices really are just merely the result of whatever state the material particles in my brain happen to be in in the past (deterministic) how in blue blazes are my choices instantaneously effecting the state of material particles into the past? quote of note:
Lecture 11: Decoherence and Hidden Variables - Scott Aaronson Excerpt: "Look, we all have fun ridiculing the creationists who think the world sprang into existence on October 23, 4004 BC at 9AM (presumably Babylonian time), with the fossils already in the ground, light from distant stars heading toward us, etc. But if we accept the usual picture of quantum mechanics, then in a certain sense the situation is far worse: the world (as you experience it) might as well not have existed 10^-43 seconds ago!" http://www.scottaaronson.com/democritus/lec11.html
Of related interest to 'The Mind and Its Now' as Stanley Jaki termed it, it is interesting to note what many people say in their Near Death Experiences in relation to all this. For instance,,,
'There is no way to tell whether minutes, hours or years go by. Existence is the only reality and it is inseparable from the eternal now.' - John Star - NDE Experiencer 'Earthly time has no meaning in the spirit realm. There is no concept of before or after. Everything - past, present, future - exists simultaneously.' - Kimberly Clark Sharp - NDE Experiencer 'In the 'spirit world,,, instantly, there was no sense of time. See, everything on earth is related to time. You got up this morning, you are going to go to bed tonight. Something is new, it will get old. Something is born, it's going to die. Everything on the physical plane is relative to time, but everything in the spiritual plane is relative to eternity. Instantly I was in total consciousness and awareness of eternity, and you and I as we live in this earth cannot even comprehend it, because everything that we have here is filled within the veil of the temporal life. In the spirit life that is more real than anything else and it is awesome. Eternity as a concept is awesome. There is no such thing as time. I knew that whatever happened was going to go on and on.' Mickey Robinson - Near Death Experience testimony - video http://www.metacafe.com/watch/4045544
Moreover this 'eternal now' is verified by Einstein's special relativity:
"The laws of relativity have changed timeless existence from a theological claim to a physical reality. Light, you see, is outside of time, a fact of nature proven in thousands of experiments at hundreds of universities. I don’t pretend to know how tomorrow can exist simultaneously with today and yesterday. But at the speed of light they actually and rigorously do. Time does not pass." Richard Swenson - More Than Meets The Eye, Chpt. 12 "I've just developed a new theory of eternity." Albert Einstein - The Einstein Factor - Reader's Digest
time, as we understand it temporally, would come to a complete stop at the speed of light. To grasp the whole 'time coming to a complete stop at the speed of light' concept a little more easily, imagine moving away from the face of a clock at the speed of light. Would not the hands on the clock stay stationary as you moved away from the face of the clock at the speed of light? Moving away from the face of a clock at the speed of light happens to be the same 'thought experiment' that gave Einstein his breakthrough insight into e=mc2.
Albert Einstein - Special Relativity - Insight Into Eternity - 'thought experiment' video http://www.metacafe.com/w/6545941/
Our understanding of how the folding and collapsing of the past and the future into the 'eternal now' is even possible, is helped by us first learning that, at the speed of light, the 3-Dimensional world itself folds and collapses 'into a higher dimension' Please note at the 3:22 minute mark of the following video, when the 3-Dimensional world ‘folds and collapses’ into a tunnel shape around the direction of travel as a 'hypothetical' observer moves towards the ‘higher dimension’ of the speed of light,
Approaching The Speed Of Light - Optical Effects - video http://www.metacafe.com/watch/5733303/
And this 'tunnel effect' to a higher dimension is also noted in Near Death Experiences.
The NDE and the Tunnel - Kevin Williams' research conclusions Excerpt: I started to move toward the light. The way I moved, the physics, was completely different than it is here on Earth. It was something I had never felt before and never felt since. It was a whole different sensation of motion. I obviously wasn't walking or skipping or crawling. I was not floating. I was flowing. I was flowing toward the light. I was accelerating and I knew I was accelerating, but then again, I didn't really feel the acceleration. I just knew I was accelerating toward the light. Again, the physics was different - the physics of motion of time, space, travel. It was completely different in that tunnel, than it is here on Earth. I came out into the light and when I came out into the light, I realized that I was in heaven. Barbara Springer
Verse and Music:
2 Timothy 1:9 He has saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace, which was given to us in Christ Jesus before time began. Phillips, Craig & Dean - When The Stars Burn Down (Blessing & Honor) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eAJtpb_siFk
Mapou, the 'frame of reference' of the 'matrix' is centered on each and every conscious observer in the universe. Thus while it seems fairly obvious that human observers certainly do not generate 'the matrix', the fact that the 'the matrix' transfers from one conscious observer to another certainly gives us strong reason to believe that consciousness is the 'absolute' frame of reference and that an 'ultimate consciousness', i.e. God, is responsible for generating the matrix in the first place to each point of conscious observation in the universe. See 'Wigner's Friend' and 'The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics',, At the 8:30 minute mark of the following video, Schrodinger’s cat and Wigner's Friend is highlighted in a excellent animation from Morgan Freeman’s ‘Through The Wormhole’:
Divinely Planted Quantum States - video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qCTBygadaM4
The problem that quantum theory presents for our 'normal' view of physics is this:
"quantum theory entails an irreducible subjective element in its conceptual basis. In contrast, the theory of relativity when fully exploited, is based on a totally objective view." On The Comparison Of Quantum and Relativity Theories - Sachs - 1986
Moreover, Wigner's Quantum Symmetries is hardly the only place where consciousness is shown to be primary to reality, i.e. 'absolute' to reality. The 'problem' for atheistic materialists who would wish that there was an objective material reality 'out there somewhere' where the absolute frame of reference could ultimately rest, an 'absolute frame of reference' that would be considered completely independent from our conscious observation, has only become acutely worse for atheistic materials. Leggett's inequality was particularly devastating for those who, for whatever severely misguided reason, would wish to hold onto a atheistic/materialistic view of reality:
“I’m going to talk about the Bell inequality, and more importantly a new inequality that you might not have heard of called the Leggett inequality, that was recently measured. It was actually formulated almost 30 years ago by Professor Leggett, who is a Nobel Prize winner, but it wasn’t tested until about a year and a half ago (in 2007), when an article appeared in Nature, that the measurement was made by this prominent quantum group in Vienna led by Anton Zeilinger, which they measured the Leggett inequality, which actually goes a step deeper than the Bell inequality and rules out any possible interpretation other than consciousness creates reality when the measurement is made.” – Bernard Haisch, Ph.D., Calphysics Institute, is an astrophysicist and author of over 130 scientific publications. Preceding quote taken from this following video; Quantum Mechanics and Consciousness - A New Measurement - Bernard Haisch, Ph.D (Shortened version of entire video with notes in description of video) http://vimeo.com/37517080
of note:
Alain Aspect and Anton Zeilinger by Richard Conn Henry - Physics Professor - John Hopkins University Excerpt: Why do people cling with such ferocity to belief in a mind-independent reality? It is surely because if there is no such reality, then ultimately (as far as we can know) mind alone exists. And if mind is not a product of real matter, but rather is the creator of the "illusion" of material reality (which has, in fact, despite the materialists, been known to be the case, since the discovery of quantum mechanics in 1925), then a theistic view of our existence becomes the only rational alternative to solipsism (solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist). (Dr. Henry's referenced experiment and paper - “An experimental test of non-local realism” by S. Gröblacher et. al., Nature 446, 871, April 2007 - “To be or not to be local” by Alain Aspect, Nature 446, 866, April 2007 http://henry.pha.jhu.edu/aspect.html
Very good, Philip! You have to credit some of these advertising types with imagination. But then I believe they're not slow in employing authors, when they can, though I believe Rushdie became a writer after his stint as a copywriter. Axel
Eugene Wigner Excerpt: When I returned to Berlin, the excellent crystallographer Weissenberg asked me to study: why is it that in a crystal the atoms like to sit in a symmetry plane or symmetry axis. After a short time of thinking I understood:,,,, To express this basic experience in a more direct way: the world does not have a privileged center, there is no absolute rest, preferred direction, ...
There is a vexing problem with Dr. Wigner's admitted belief in the non-existence of the absolute. I say it's a belief because theres is nothing logical or scientific about it. In fact, it is easily refuted. If all positions are relative, then we have a self-referential system in which every position is ultimately relative to itself. Once you fully grok this, then it becomes inescapable that the truth is the exact opposite of what you've been indoctrinated to believe: Only the absolute exists; the relative is abstract. There are other equally solid refutations of the idea that only relative positions exist but this one is sufficient. Dr. Wigner digs himself into a deeper hole as he continues:
As the observer is replaced by another observer (working elsewhere, looking at a different direction, using another clock, perhaps being left-handed), the state of the very same particle is described by another vector, obtained from the previous vector by multiplying it with a matrix. This matrix transfers from one observer to another.
This very much sounds like an absolute (i.e., independent of observers) matrix to me. Where does this invariant (absolute) set of properties come from? I think it's amazing how someone can seem to be saying one thing while actually saying the exact opposite. I'm not sure that Dr. Wigner understood as much as he has led himself or others to believe. Mapou
Axel,, " That reference, which cropped up here the other day, to ‘herding cats’, springs to mind." This one? cowboys herding cats http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pk7yqlTMvp8 bornagain77
Well, it seems it's just the name of what I had got the gist of in very vague terms. 'Eigenstates' are definitely off the menu, as far as I'm concerned; and vectors are 'pushing it, too. Goldarn it! Axel
Oh. I see you've linked it, Philip. The Quantum Zeno effect. Thank you. Axel
'Leslie Ballentine promoted the ensemble interpretation in his book Quantum Mechanics, A Modern Development. In it,[6] he described what he called the “Watched Pot Experiment”. His argument was that, under certain circumstances, a repeatedly measured system, such as an unstable nucleus, would be prevented from decaying by the act of measurement itself. He initially presented this as a kind of reductio ad absurdum of wave function collapse.[7] The effect has been shown to be real.' Wow! It's strange, isn't it, how solid inferences can be drawn from the paradoxes of QM? Just as well, mind you, as I imagine discoveries would have stopped some time ago. But to hear 'our friends' (whom you cruelly terrorize with your repeated references to the always cogent findings of mathematics in relation to QM, instead of keeping things anecdotal and nice and 'family friendly') you'd think QM was all mumbo-jumbo and mystery! '...The nuances of that question would be interesting to find out given the predictions Theism makes towards man’s unique relationship with God.' Yes, it's that unique relationship that convinces me. And if, perchance, I'm right about each of us living in a divinely coordinated, but uniquely personal world of our own, it would reinforce it to the nth degree, I imagine. Incidentally, you mentioned the difficulty you could foresee in getting the cat to stare at the unstable nucleus for an extended period of time. That reference, which cropped up here the other day, to 'herding cats', springs to mind. I'll Google the Quantum Zeno effect, but I don't know if it can be popularized sufficiently, even without a mathematical input, to be intelligible to me. But you never know. Maybe the name's more intimidating than the concept, even a popularized version. Axel
The Quantum Zeno Effect http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ensemble_interpretation#The_quantum_Zeno_effect bornagain77
Axel, the one key difficulty in setting up a Quantum Symmetries experiment for cats (or for any other living thing) would be figuring out how to get the cat to convey/record the information of what it is seeing, down to the quantum level, from its own unique perspective of consciousness.,, A very tricky proposition but not impossible.,, It seems the Quantum Zeno Effect may be much easier and interesting to perform with a cat, with the key difficulty in the experiment being trying to figure out how get the cat to look at the unstable nucleus for an extended period of time. notes: The quantum Zeno effect is a situation in which an unstable particle, if observed continuously, will never decay. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_Zeno_effect Leslie Ballentine promoted the ensemble interpretation in his book Quantum Mechanics, A Modern Development. In it,[6] he described what he called the "Watched Pot Experiment". His argument was that, under certain circumstances, a repeatedly measured system, such as an unstable nucleus, would be prevented from decaying by the act of measurement itself. He initially presented this as a kind of reductio ad absurdum of wave function collapse.[7] The effect has been shown to be real. bornagain77
Axel you ask "On a serious note, Philip, I wonder whether the cat’s consciousness would qualify as consciousness in that situation." That is a very interesting question and one that, IMO, is not impossible to answer from experimentation given Wigner's quantum symmetries. The nuances of that question would be interesting to find out given the predictions Theism makes towards man's unique relationship with God. Here is Wigner commenting on the key experiment that led Wigner to his Nobel Prize winning work on quantum symmetries,,, Eugene Wigner Excerpt: When I returned to Berlin, the excellent crystallographer Weissenberg asked me to study: why is it that in a crystal the atoms like to sit in a symmetry plane or symmetry axis. After a short time of thinking I understood:,,,, To express this basic experience in a more direct way: the world does not have a privileged center, there is no absolute rest, preferred direction, unique origin of calendar time, even left and right seem to be rather symmetric. The interference of electrons, photons, neutrons has indicated that the state of a particle can be described by a vector possessing a certain number of components. As the observer is replaced by another observer (working elsewhere, looking at a different direction, using another clock, perhaps being left-handed), the state of the very same particle is described by another vector, obtained from the previous vector by multiplying it with a matrix. This matrix transfers from one observer to another. http://www.reak.bme.hu/Wigner_Course/WignerBio/wb1.htm bornagain77
One day soon, physicists will wake up from their stupor and realize that nonlocality is the norm, not the exception, that distance is an illusion and that even gravity is an instantaneous nonlocal phenomenon. There is no spooky action at a distance simply because there is no distance. It's a perceptual illusion. Mapou
Now don't YOU start challenging the mechanistic paradigm, Denyse! bornagain77 has already upset them with his constant carping about mathematical proofs etc relating to quantum mechanics. I suggested he should try to argue with them as anecdotally as possible at all times. 'God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb', and so much he. But he's very determined and I'm afraid my advice is falling on stony soil. On a serious note, Philip, I wonder whether the cat's consciousness would qualify as consciousness in that situation. From a Christian perspective, i.e. a sound perspective, I doubt it. I have a strong suspicion that the quantum reality is between our personal God and each human person, as is everything else in this universe, ultimately. Axel
as to this comment from the article:
That means with Schrodinger's cat, the cat is no longer predicted to be both dead and alive. It is instead dead if the nucleus decays, and alive if the nucleus does not decay, just as one would expect.
But what if the cat, unbeknownst to us, constantly stares at the nucleus before it decays?
Quantum Zeno effect Excerpt: The quantum Zeno effect is,,, an unstable particle, if observed continuously, will never decay. per wikipedia
Seems they may have to go back to the drawing board on that little theory of theirs trying to restore primacy to the particle. Consciousness is not so easily disregarded in quantum mechanics as they seemed to have presupposed! At the 8:30 minute mark of the following video, Schrodinger's cat is highlighted in a excellent animation from Morgan Freeman's 'Through The Wormhole':
Divinely Planted Quantum States - video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qCTBygadaM4
"It will remain remarkable, in whatever way our future concepts may develop, that the very study of the external world led to the scientific conclusion that the content of the consciousness is the ultimate universal reality" - Eugene Wigner - (Remarks on the Mind-Body Question, Eugene Wigner, in Wheeler and Zurek, p.169) 1961 - received Nobel Prize in 1963 for 'Quantum Symmetries'

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