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How a cell protects itself

structure of an animal cell/royroydeb (CC BY-SA 4.0)

From ScienceDaily: Why do cell nuclei export machinery that cannot be used?

The cell contains transcripts of the genetic material, which migrate from the cell nucleus to another part of the cell. This movement protects the genetic transcripts from the recruitment of ‘spliceosomes’. If this protection does not happen, the entire cell is in danger: meaning that cancer and neurodegenerative diseases can develop. Researchers have demonstrated the underlying mechanism in the cell. …

In other organisms, such as baker’s yeast, which is often used as a model organism in research, scientists had thought that the snRNA of the spliceosomes never left the cell nucleus. The reason for the evolutionary development to export snRNA before incorporation into the spliceosomes of human cells was also a mystery.

“Our experiments show that in fact the snRNA of the spliceosomes also migrates into the cytoplasm in yeast,” said Professor Heike Krebber, Head of the Department of Molecular Genetics at the Institute for Microbiology and Genetics at the University of Göttingen. In a second step, the researchers answered the question as to why the messenger RNA of the spliceosomes actually moves into the cytoplasm. It was unclear because the spliceosomes’ task is to cut out individual RNA regions and this takes place back in the cell nucleus. The team of researchers manipulated the yeast by genetic experiments so that the precursors of snRNA no longer changed in the cytoplasm. The observation: “The spliceosomes attempt to work with the precursors, the unfinished snRNA, and this cannot function as it’s supposed to,” said Krebber. “This is the reason that healthy cells must first send the precursors of messenger RNA out of the cell nucleus immediately after their production: it is to prevent them from being used by the developing spliceosomes. This basic understanding is important in order to identify the underlying cause of the development of diseases. Paper. (open access) – Daniel Becker, Anna Greta Hirsch, Lysann Bender, Thomas Lingner, Gabriela Salinas, Heike Krebber. Nuclear Pre-snRNA Export Is an Essential Quality Assurance Mechanism for Functional Spliceosomes. Cell Reports, 2019; 27 (11): 3199 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.05.031 More.

It sounds like a scheme. But the big question isn’t how cells protect themselves by very complex mechanisms but why? Boulders don’t seek to avoid becoming sand. Something is different about life that mechanical explanations do not address.

Before you go: DNA uses “climbers’ ropes method” to keep tangles at bay It all just swished into place among unthinking cells billions of yours ago. Otherwise we wouldn’t be here. Go tell it on the mountain.

DNA as a master of resource recycling

The amazing energy efficiency of cells: A science writer compares the cell to human inventions and finds that it is indeed amazingly energy-efficient.

In addition to DNA, our cells have an instruction language written in sugar Of course it all just tumbled into existence and “natural selection” somehow organized everything. As if.

Cells find optimal solutions. Not just good ones.

Researchers build “public library” to help understand photosynthesis

Wait. “The part of the plant responsible for photosynthesis is like a complex machine made up of many parts, … ” And machines just happen all by themselves, right? There is no information load to account for; it just evolved by natural selection acting on random mutation the way your Android did!

In Nature: Cells have “secret conversations” We say this a lot: That’s a lot of information to have simply come into being by natural selection acting on random mutation (Darwinism). It’s getting not only ridiculous but obviously ridiculous.

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Researchers: Helpful gut microbes send messages to their hosts If the strategy is clearly identified, they should look for non-helpful microbes that have found a way to copy it (horizontal gene transfer?)

Cells and proteins use sugars to talk to one another Cells are like Neanderthal man. They get smarter every time we run into them. And just think, it all just tumbled into existence by natural selection acting on random mutations (Darwinism) too…

Researchers: First animal cell was not simple; it could “transdifferentiate” From the paper: “… these analyses offer no support for the homology of sponge choanocytes and choanoflagellates, nor for the view that the first multicellular animals were simple balls of cells with limited capacity to differentiate.”

“Interspecies communication” strategy between gut bacteria and mammalian hosts’ genes described

Researchers: Cells Have A Repair Crew That Fixes Local Leaks

Researchers: How The Immune System “Thinks”

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Researcher: Mathematics Sheds Light On “Unfathomably Complex” Cellular Thinking

How do cells in the body know where they are supposed to be?

Researchers A Kill Cancer Code Is Embedded in Every Cell

Nuclear Pre-snRNA Export Is an Essential Quality Assurance Mechanism for Functional Spliceosomes Daniel Becker, Anna Greta Hirsch, Lysann Bender, Thomas Lingner, Gabriela Salinas, Heike Krebber. Cell Reports, 2019; 27 (11): 3199 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.05.031 How could the functional spliceosomes have evolved? How could the mentioned quality assurance mechanism have evolved? Note that the questions are not “how did that evolve?” but “how could that have evolved?”. The former question would require knowing how things really happened, but the latter format asks about possible comprehensive coherent scientific explanations that make physicochemical sense. Perhaps some of the active objectors here would like to elaborate on this? I won’t hold my breadth while waiting for it to happen though. :) They seem to lack what it takes to engage in serious scientific chats. But they could surprise us. :) OLV
Given the messy human history and the fact that there are so many things that can go wrong in the complex functionality of the functional complexity in the biological systems, it’s amazing that they work. That’s robustness on steroids. Interesting that all that came to be through a long and winding road of random variations and natural selection. ;) OLV
Interesting article. Thanks OLV

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