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Cellular Machinery Redesigns Genes For Cold Temperature Operation


The central nervous system is constantly sending electronic impulses called action potentials which are propagated along nerve cells via the finely-tuned actions of various proteins that are located in the nerve cell’s membrane. First, there is a membrane protein that simultaneously pumps potassium ions into the cell and sodium ions out of the cell. This sets up a chemical gradient across the membrane. There is more potassium inside the cell than outside, and there is more sodium outside than inside. Also, there are more negatively charged ions inside the cell so there is a voltage drop (50-100 millivolt) across the membrane. In addition to the sodium-potassium pump, there are also sodium channels and potassium channels. These membrane proteins allow sodium and potassium, respectively, to pass through the membrane. They are normally closed, but when the action potential travels along the nerve cell tail, it causes the voltage-controlled sodium channels to open quickly. Sodium ions outside the cell then come streaming into the cell down the electro-chemical gradient. As a result the voltage drop is reversed and the decaying electronic impulse, which caused the sodium channels to open, is boosted as it continues on its way along the nerve cell tail. When the voltage goes from negative to positive inside the cell, the sodium channels slowly close and the potassium channels open. Hence the sodium channels are open only momentarily, and now with the potassium channels open, the potassium ions concentrated inside the cell come streaming out down their electro-chemical gradient. As a result the original voltage drop is reestablished. This process repeats itself until the impulse finally reaches the end of the nerve cell tail.  Read more

For you Mung: Pistol Shrimp, Mantis Shrimp, Archer Fish, Flamboyant Cuttlefish, Invisible Octopus - video http://www.metacafe.com/watch/4213184/ bornagain77
Winter World: The Ingenuity of Animal Survival Mung
Well, it's obvious that the warm water octopus evolved from the cold water octopus. this is exactly what we would predict if global warming were true. Mung
Of related interest to the use of electricity in biological processes: Proteins Conduct Electricity - November 25, 2012 Excerpt: "The team showed that the protein could carry large currents, equivalent to a human hair carrying one amp. The team also discovered that current flow could be regulated in much the same way as transistors, the tiny devices driving computers and smartphones, work but on a smaller scale: the proteins are only a quarter of the size of current silicon based transistors." The finding represents a leap forward in measurement at the nano scale. “Prior to this work, measurement of millions, if not billions of proteins was only possible, so losing crucial details of how an individual molecule functions.” The team used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to read the electronics of a single molecule of cytochrome b562, a protein just 5 nanometers (billions of a meter) long. http://crev.info/2012/11/proteins-conduct-electricity/ Of note: AWG 44 wire is the wire size that is equivalent to the width of a human hair,, Measurements and Gauge Excerpt: An AWG # 44 wire is about the thickness of a human hair. http://unimaxsupply.com/prc/pinstruct/measurements.htm And AWG 44 wire is rated at well below the .014 Ampacity, the last Ampacity they have listed, for AWG 40 wire,,, AWG Wire Table, AWG Copper Wire Gauge Chart http://www.interfacebus.com/Copper_Wire_AWG_SIze.html Thus, since 1 divided by .010 is 100, the ampacity (current carrying capacity) for the protein they measured is at least 100 times better than a copper or silver wire would be compared at the size of a human hair. Also of note: The best manmade (intelligently designed) conductor of electricity beats copper and silver by only 30 to 50 times: Graphene: How It Will Change the Future - Apr 12, 2012 Excerpt: Copper is a great conductor of electricity and heat. Only silver beats copper (by less than 10%). That is why we use copper wires to transmit electricity and data, and copper pots are prized by cooks. Graphene conducts heat and electricity 30-50 times better than copper and silver: electrons flowing in graphene travel near the speed of light. http://finchin.com/graphene-in-plain-english/ also of note: The mechanism and properties of bio-photon emission and absorption in protein molecules in living systems - May 2012 Excerpt: From the energy spectra, it was determined that the protein molecules could both radiate and absorb bio-photons with wavelengths of less than 3??m and 5–7??m, consistent with the energy level transitions of the excitons.,,, http://jap.aip.org/resource/1/japiau/v111/i9/p093519_s1?isAuthorized=no Cellular Communication through Light Excerpt: Information transfer is a life principle. On a cellular level we generally assume that molecules are carriers of information, yet there is evidence for non-molecular information transfer due to endogenous coherent light. This light is ultra-weak, is emitted by many organisms, including humans and is conventionally described as biophoton emission. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005086 bornagain77

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