Holloway distinguishes between meaningful information and artificial intelligence:
What is meaningful information, and how does it relate to the artificial intelligence question?
First, let’s start with Claude Shannon’s definition of information. Shannon (1916–2001), a mathematician and computer scientist, stated that an event’s information content is the negative logarithm* of its probability.
So, if I flip a coin, I generate 1 bit of information, according to his theory. The coin came down heads or tails. That’s all the information it provides.
However, Shannon’s definition of information does not capture our intuition of information. Suppose I paid money to learn a lot of information at a lecture and the lecturer spent the whole session flipping a coin and calling out the result. I’d consider the event uninformative and ask for my money back.
But what if the lecturer insisted that he has produced an extremely large amount of Shannon information for my money, and thus met the requirement of providing a lot of information? I would not be convinced. Would you?
A quantity that better matches our intuitive notion of information is mutual information. Mutual information measures how much event A reduces our uncertainty about event B. We can see mutual information in action if we picture a sign at a fork in the road. More. (Eric Holloway, “Artificial intelligence is impossible” at Mind Matters Today)
See also: Could one single machine invent everything? (Eric Holloway)
So lifelike … Another firm caught using humans to fake AI: Byzantine claims and counterclaims followed as other interpreters came forward with similar stories. According to Qian, something similar happened last year.
The hills go high tech An American community finding its way in the new digital economy At present, says Hochschild, Ankur Gopal and Interapt are sourcing as many new hillbillies as they can find: “For now, there is so much demand for I.T. workers — 10,000 estimated openings by 2020 in the Louisville metro area alone — that Mr. Gopal is reaching out to new groups.