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Free index to world’s research papers a boon to vast literature searches

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About time, too:

In a project that could unlock the world’s research papers for easier computerized analysis, an American technologist has released online a gigantic index of the words and short phrases contained in more than 100 million journal articles — including many paywalled papers. The catalogue, which was released on 7 October and is free to use, holds tables of more than 355 billion words and sentence fragments listed next to the articles in which they appear. It is an effort to help scientists use software to glean insights from published work even if they have no legal access to the underlying papers, says its creator, Carl Malamud. He released the files under the auspices of Public Resource, a non-profit corporation in Sebastopol, California that he founded.

Holly Else, “Giant, free index to world’s research papers released online” at Nature 26 October 2021

Malamud isn’t breaching copyright, he says, because his quotations are only five words or so. In the article, Else warns that publishers might question how he could have created the index in the first place.

Some of us are left wondering why, iogven that the public generally pays for science, the public isn’t allowed to read it for free.

Comments
Viola lee, I certainly agree with you that the borosilicate flasks could certainly qualify as a “new discovery”. I certainly could have made that clearer in my previous statement. Overall I would say it’s an interesting little find but nothing that’ll change the game so to speak.Seekers
October 31, 2021
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To Seekers. A couple of things. First, I think it's been known for a long time that the earth's atmosphere was not as the Miller-Urey setup used. In fact, early in the article it says "Miller set up an apparatus to test that hypothesis by simulating what scientists at the time believed Earth's original atmosphere might have been", so I also take issue with the quote you quoted. However, you say "I don’t believe it offers anything groundbreaking however. Most I believe you could read from other sources or has been known for quite some time." However, I think the part about the role of the borosilicate flasks is the "new discovery" referred to in the article title. I'm not sure that qualifies as "groundbreaking" but I don't think it has been known for a long time.Viola Lee
October 31, 2021
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Yes, Viola Lee, it's as interesting as nature producing stones yet being unable to produce Stonehenge. Life is more than just accumulations of the building blocks or the building blocks of life.ET
October 31, 2021
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Viola lee, Thank you for the article, it’s quite a sensationalist piece. I don’t believe it offers anything groundbreaking however. Most I believe you could read from other sources or has been known for quite some time. I do however take some issue with this quote: "Miller recreated in his experiments the atmosphere and waters of the primitive Earth,". Reading the relevant literature of origin of life or abiogenesis studies, I’m quite certain it has been oft repeated that the miller/Urey experiment’s ‘environment’ wasn’t anything like that of the early earth’s?.Seekers
October 31, 2021
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Another article of interest to you guys: Scientists recreated classic origin-of-life experiment and made a new discoveryViola Lee
October 31, 2021
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"Information is information, neither matter nor energy." Norbert WeinerET
October 30, 2021
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Darwinists, with their reductive materialistic framework, and especially with the falsification of 'hidden variables', simply have no beyond space and time cause that they can appeal so as to be able to explain the non-local quantum coherence and/or entanglement that is now found to be ubiquitous within biology.
“hidden variables don’t exist. If you have proved them come back with PROOF and a Nobel Prize. John Bell theorized that maybe the particles can signal faster than the speed of light. This is what he advocated in his interview in “The Ghost in the Atom.” But the violation of Leggett’s inequality in 2007 takes away that possibility and rules out all non-local hidden variables. Observation instantly defines what properties a particle has and if you assume they had properties before we measured them, then you need evidence, because right now there is none which is why realism is dead, and materialism dies with it. How does the particle know what we are going to pick so it can conform to that?” per Jimfit https://uncommondescent.com/philosophy/quantum-physicist-david-bohm-on-why-there-cannot-be-a-theory-of-everything/#comment-662358
Christians, on the other hand, readily do have a beyond space and time cause that they can appeal to so as to explain 'non-local' quantum entanglement.
Colossians 1:17 He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.
Moreover, it is also important to realize that quantum information is conserved. As the following article states, In the classical world, information can be copied and deleted at will. In the quantum world, however, the conservation of quantum information means that information cannot be created nor destroyed.
Quantum no-hiding theorem experimentally confirmed for first time - 2011 Excerpt: In the classical world, information can be copied and deleted at will. In the quantum world, however, the conservation of quantum information means that information cannot be created nor destroyed. This concept stems from two fundamental theorems of quantum mechanics: the no-cloning theorem and the no-deleting theorem. A third and related theorem, called the no-hiding theorem, addresses information loss in the quantum world. According to the no-hiding theorem, if information is missing from one system (which may happen when the system interacts with the environment), then the information is simply residing somewhere else in the Universe; in other words, the missing information cannot be hidden in the correlations between a system and its environment. http://www.physorg.com/news/2011-03-quantum-no-hiding-theorem-experimentally.html
The implication of finding 'non-local', beyond space and time, and ‘conserved’, cannot be created nor destroyed, quantum information in molecular biology on such a massive scale, in every important biomolecule in our bodies, is fairly, and pleasantly, obvious. That pleasant implication, of course, being the fact that we now have very strong empirical evidence suggesting that we do indeed have an eternal soul that is capable of living beyond the death of our material bodies. As Stuart Hameroff states in the following article, “the quantum information,,, isn’t destroyed. It can’t be destroyed.,,, it's possible that this quantum information can exist outside the body. Perhaps indefinitely as a soul.”
Leading Scientists Say Consciousness Cannot Die It Goes Back To The Universe - Oct. 19, 2017 - Spiritual Excerpt: “Let’s say the heart stops beating. The blood stops flowing. The microtubules lose their quantum state. But the quantum information, which is in the microtubules, isn’t destroyed. It can’t be destroyed. It just distributes and dissipates to the universe at large. If a patient is resuscitated, revived, this quantum information can go back into the microtubules and the patient says, “I had a near death experience. I saw a white light. I saw a tunnel. I saw my dead relatives.,,” Now if they’re not revived and the patient dies, then it's possible that this quantum information can exist outside the body. Perhaps indefinitely as a soul.” - Stuart Hameroff - Quantum Entangled Consciousness - Life After Death - video (5:00 minute mark) (of note, this video is no longer available for public viewing) https://radaronline.com/exclusives/2012/10/life-after-death-soul-science-morgan-freeman/
Personally, I consider these recent findings from quantum biology to rival all other scientific discoveries over the past century. Surpassing even the discovery of a beginning of the universe, via Big Bang cosmology, in terms of theological, even personal, significance. As Jesus once asked his disciples and a crowd of followers, "Is anything worth more than your soul?"
Mark 8:37 Is anything worth more than your soul?
bornagain77
October 30, 2021
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The inference to Intelligent Design could hardly be more direct. As Evolution News stated about the preceding finding in an understated tone, "the best minds in science and engineering are trying to approach the capabilities of bacteria. That might suggest some thoughts about the origin of the target they are trying to reach."
Life Fights Entropy with Intelligent Design - June 8, 2021 Excerpt: Then comes the punch line in the last sentence: “Guided by this insight, we picked the particle mass and other engine properties to maximize how fast the engine extracts energy, outperforming previous designs and achieving power comparable to molecular machinery in living cells, and speeds comparable to fast-swimming bacteria,” says postdoctoral fellow Jannik Ehrich." Consider: the best minds in science and engineering are trying to approach the capabilities of bacteria. That might suggest some thoughts about the origin of the target they are trying to reach. https://evolutionnews.org/2021/06/life-fights-entropy-with-intelligent-design/
These experimental realizations of the Maxwell demon thought experiment go to the very heart of the Darwinism vs. Intelligent Design debate and completely blow the reductive materialistic presuppositions of Darwinists, (presuppositions about immaterial information being merely ’emergent’ from some material basis), out of the water. In other words, directly contrary to Darwinian presuppositions, immaterial information, particularly ‘positional quantum information’, is now experimentally shown to be its own distinct physical entity that is a product of an ‘observer who describes the system’. And although information can interact with matter and energy, (interact in a ‘top-down’ manner; see George Ellis ‘Recognizing Top Down Causation’), it is still shown to be its own independent physical entity that is separate from matter and energy and, moreover, this immaterial information has a quote unquote ‘thermodynamic content’ that can be physically measured. Moreover, on top of all that, researchers have now, in fact, built a quote unquote 'information engine' that, via knowledge of a particle's position, achieves "power comparable to molecular machinery in living cells, and speeds comparable to fast-swimming bacteria,” Moreover, directly contrary to what Jeremy England tried to imply, i.e. that “one person’s information is another person’s noise.”,
England, Davies: Honesty, if Not Agreement, on the Origin of Life Brian Miller – July 1, 2021 Excerpt: England responded by stating that the tendency to treat life as somehow a special arrangement of matter defined by meaningful biological information represents our inherent bias, resulting from our familiarity with life’s current characteristics and forms. Instead, “one person’s information is another person’s noise.”,,, https://evolutionnews.org/2021/07/england-davies-honesty-if-not-agreement-on-the-origin-of-life/
,,, directly contrary to what Jeremy England tried to imply about the information in life simply being the result of 'noise', the fact of the matter is that in order for the researchers to achieve "power comparable to molecular machinery in living cells, and speeds comparable to fast-swimming bacteria”, then the 'knowledge' that the researchers imparted into their 'information engine' had to be the most exacting and precise information of the particle's exact position. In fact, 'noise' is precisely what had to be overcome by the researchers with their 'imparted information' in order for the researchers to achieve "power comparable to molecular machinery in living cells, and speeds comparable to fast-swimming bacteria”. In short, this result directly contradicts what Jeremy England was trying to imply and shows that, (in order for life to be as far out of thermodynamic equilibrium as it is, and in order to explain why life has the amazing thermodynamic efficiency that is does, (far outclassing the thermodynamic efficiency of any machine man has ever designed and built), then, the most exacting and precise information of the positions of particles must be imparted into a system in order to for an 'observer' to bring a system out of thermodynamic equilibrium.. Moreover, on top of all that, (as if that were not already more than enough to falsify the presuppositions of atheistic materialists who hold information to merely be 'emergent' from a material basis), classical information is now shown to be a subset of quantum information. In the following site entitled “Quantum Information Science”, a site where Charles Bennett, (of quantum teleportation and reversible computation fame), himself is on the steering committee,
Quantum Information Science Steering Committee C. H. Bennett IBM D. P. DiVincenzo IBM N. Gershenfeld MIT H. M. Gibbs University of Arizona H. J. Kimble Caltech J. Preskill Caltech U. V. Vazirani UC/Berkeley D. J. Wineland NIST C. Yao Princeton University https://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2000/nsf00101/nsf00101.htm
On that site, they have this illustration showing classical information to be a subset of quantum information
Classical Information is a subset of Quantum information – illustration https://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2000/nsf00101/images/figure1.gif below that illustration they have this caption, "Figure 1: The well-established theory of classical information and computation is actually a subset of a much larger topic, the emerging theory of quantum information and computation."
Moreover, the fact that quantum information is ubiquitous within life has now also been theoretically and experimentally established.
“What happens is this classical information (of DNA) is embedded, sandwiched, into the quantum information (of DNA). And most likely this classical information is never accessed because it is inside all the quantum information. You can only access the quantum information or the electron clouds and the protons. So mathematically you can describe that as a quantum/classical state.” Elisabeth Rieper – Classical and Quantum Information in DNA – video (Longitudinal Quantum Information resides along the entire length of DNA discussed at the 19:30 minute mark; at 24:00 minute mark Dr Rieper remarks that practically the whole DNA molecule can be viewed as quantum information with classical information embedded within it) https://youtu.be/2nqHOnVTxJE?t=1176 Quantum criticality in a wide range of important biomolecules – Mar. 6, 2015 Excerpt: “Most of the molecules taking part actively in biochemical processes are tuned exactly to the transition point and are critical conductors,” they say. That’s a discovery that is as important as it is unexpected. “These findings suggest an entirely new and universal mechanism of conductance in biology very different from the one used in electrical circuits.” The permutations of possible energy levels of biomolecules is huge so the possibility of finding even one (biomolecule) that is in the quantum critical state by accident is mind-bogglingly small and, to all intents and purposes, impossible.,, of the order of 10^-50 of possible small biomolecules and even less for proteins,”,,, “what exactly is the advantage that criticality confers?” https://medium.com/the-physics-arxiv-blog/the-origin-of-life-and-the-hidden-role-of-quantum-criticality-ca4707924552
The absolutely fascinating thing about finding quantum information to be ubiquitous within life, "in a wide range of important biomolecules", is that it takes a 'non-local', i.e. beyond space and time, cause in order to explain quantum correlations in the first place,. As the following paper entitled “Looking beyond space and time to cope with quantum theory” stated, “Our result gives weight to the idea that quantum correlations somehow arise from outside spacetime, in the sense that no story in space and time can describe them,”
Looking beyond space and time to cope with quantum theory – 29 October 2012 Excerpt: “Our result gives weight to the idea that quantum correlations somehow arise from outside spacetime, in the sense that no story in space and time can describe them,” http://www.quantumlah.org/highlight/121029_hidden_influences.php
bornagain77
October 30, 2021
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Yet contrary to what Landauer and other atheistic materialists may believe, there is much evidence for the physical reality of immaterial information which is independent of matter and energy. The easiest way to demonstrate the physical reality of information, which is independent of matter and energy, is with quantum teleportation. As the following article states, “the photons aren’t disappearing from one place and appearing in another. Instead, it’s the information that’s being teleported through quantum entanglement.,,,”
Quantum Teleportation Enters the Real World – September 19, 2016 Excerpt: Two separate teams of scientists have taken quantum teleportation from the lab into the real world. Researchers working in Calgary, Canada and Hefei, China, used existing fiber optics networks to transmit small units of information across cities via quantum entanglement — Einstein’s “spooky action at a distance.”,,, This isn’t teleportation in the “Star Trek” sense — the photons aren’t disappearing from one place and appearing in another. Instead, it’s the information that’s being teleported through quantum entanglement.,,, ,,, it is only the information that gets teleported from one place to another. http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2016/09/19/quantum-teleportation-enters-real-world/#.V-HqWNEoDtR
And as the following article states. “scientists have successfully teleported information between two separate atoms in unconnected enclosures a meter apart,,, information,,, is transferred from one place to another, but without traveling through any physical medium.”
First Teleportation Between Distant Atoms – 2009 Excerpt: For the first time, scientists have successfully teleported information between two separate atoms in unconnected enclosures a meter apart – a significant milestone in the global quest for practical quantum information processing. Teleportation may be nature’s most mysterious form of transport: Quantum information, such as the spin of a particle or the polarization of a photon, is transferred from one place to another, but without traveling through any physical medium. It has previously been achieved between photons over very large distances, between photons and ensembles of atoms, and between two nearby atoms through the intermediary action of a third. None of those, however, provides a feasible means of holding and managing quantum information over long distances. Now a team from the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) at the University of Maryland (UMD) and the University of Michigan has succeeded in teleporting a quantum state directly from one atom to another over a substantial distance https://jqi.umd.edu/news/first-teleportation-between-distant-atoms
In short, Landuaer's materialistic/atheistic belief that information does not have an existence independent of matter and energy is now experimentally shown to be simply a wrong belief on his part. Likewise, the following article also took issue with Landauer's belief that 'information is physical' and stated that, "Landauer said that information is physical because it takes energy to erase it. We are saying that the reason it (information) is physical has a broader context than that.",
Scientists show how to erase information without using energy - January 2011 Excerpt: Until now, scientists have thought that the process of erasing information requires energy. But a new study shows that, theoretically, information can be erased without using any energy at all. Instead, the cost of erasure can be paid in terms of another conserved quantity, such as spin angular momentum.,,, "Landauer said that information is physical because it takes energy to erase it. We are saying that the reason it (information) is physical has a broader context than that.", Vaccaro explained.? http://www.physorg.com/news/2011-01-scientists-erase-energy.html
Indeed, it certainly does have 'a broader context than that' To go deeper into the experimental realizations of the Maxwell demon thought experiment. In the following 2010 article it was demonstrated that knowledge of a particle's position can turn information into energy. Specifically it stated, "they coaxed a Brownian particle to travel upwards on a "spiral-staircase-like" potential energy created by an electric field solely on the basis of information on its location."
Maxwell's demon demonstration turns information into energy - November 2010 Excerpt: Scientists in Japan are the first to have succeeded in converting information into free energy in an experiment that verifies the "Maxwell demon" thought experiment devised in 1867.,,, In Maxwell’s thought experiment the demon creates a temperature difference simply from information about the gas molecule temperatures and without transferring any energy directly to them.,,, Until now, demonstrating the conversion of information to energy has been elusive, but University of Tokyo physicist Masaki Sano and colleagues have succeeded in demonstrating it in a nano-scale experiment. In a paper published in Nature Physics they describe how they coaxed a Brownian particle to travel upwards on a "spiral-staircase-like" potential energy created by an electric field solely on the basis of information on its location. As the particle traveled up the staircase it gained energy from moving to an area of higher potential, and the team was able to measure precisely how much energy had been converted from information. http://www.physorg.com/news/2010-11-maxwell-demon-energy.html?
As Christopher Jarzynski, (who originally formulated the equation to define the amount of energy that could theoretically be converted from a unit of information), stated about the preceding experimental realization of the Maxwell demon thought experiment, "This is a beautiful experimental demonstration that information has a thermodynamic content,”
Demonic device converts information to energy – 2010 Excerpt: “This is a beautiful experimental demonstration that information has a thermodynamic content,” says Christopher Jarzynski, a statistical chemist at the University of Maryland in College Park. In 1997, Jarzynski formulated an equation to define the amount of energy that could theoretically be converted from a unit of information2; the work by Sano and his team has now confirmed this equation. “This tells us something new about how the laws of thermodynamics work on the microscopic scale,” says Jarzynski. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=demonic-device-converts-inform
And to more firmly establish that entropy is not a property of the system, but a property of an observer who describes the system, in the following 2011 paper, “researchers ,,, show that when the bits (in a computer) to be deleted are quantum-mechanically entangled with the state of an observer, then the observer could even withdraw heat from the system while deleting the bits. Entanglement links the observer’s state to that of the computer in such a way that they know more about the memory than is possible in classical physics.,,, In measuring entropy, one should bear in mind that (in quantum information theory) an object does not have a certain amount of entropy per se, instead an object’s entropy is always dependent on the observer.”
Quantum knowledge cools computers: New understanding of entropy – June 1, 2011 Excerpt: Recent research by a team of physicists,,, describe,,, how the deletion of data, under certain conditions, can create a cooling effect instead of generating heat. The cooling effect appears when the strange quantum phenomenon of entanglement is invoked.,,, The new study revisits Landauer’s principle for cases when the values of the bits to be deleted may be known. When the memory content is known, it should be possible to delete the bits in such a manner that it is theoretically possible to re-create them. It has previously been shown that such reversible deletion would generate no heat. In the new paper, the researchers go a step further. They show that when the bits to be deleted are quantum-mechanically entangled with the state of an observer, then the observer could even withdraw heat from the system while deleting the bits. Entanglement links the observer’s state to that of the computer in such a way that they know more about the memory than is possible in classical physics.,,, In measuring entropy, one should bear in mind that an object does not have a certain amount of entropy per se, instead an object’s entropy is always dependent on the observer. Applied to the example of deleting data, this means that if two individuals delete data in a memory and one has more knowledge of this data, she perceives the memory to have lower entropy and can then delete the memory using less energy.,,, No heat, even a cooling effect; In the case of perfect classical knowledge of a computer memory (zero entropy), deletion of the data requires in theory no energy at all. The researchers prove that “more than complete knowledge” from quantum entanglement with the memory (negative entropy) leads to deletion of the data being accompanied by removal of heat from the computer and its release as usable energy. This is the physical meaning of negative entropy. Renner emphasizes, however, “This doesn’t mean that we can develop a perpetual motion machine.” The data can only be deleted once, so there is no possibility to continue to generate energy. The process also destroys the entanglement, and it would take an input of energy to reset the system to its starting state. The equations are consistent with what’s known as the second law of thermodynamics: the idea that the entropy of the universe can never decrease. Vedral says “We’re working on the edge of the second law. If you go any further, you will break it.” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110601134300.htm
It is hard to imagine a more antagonistic finding to the materialistic/atheistic belief that 'entropy is a property of the system' than finding that "when the bits to be deleted are quantum-mechanically entangled with the state of an observer, then the observer could even withdraw heat from the system while deleting the bits. Entanglement links the observer’s state to that of the computer in such a way that they know more about the memory than is possible in classical physics.,,," Moreover, via 'using only information about the particle’s position', researchers have now built a 'information engine' and have achieved "power comparable to molecular machinery in living cells, and speeds comparable to fast-swimming bacteria,”
World’s fastest information-fuelled engine designed by SFU researchers - May 11, 2021 Excerpt: The information engine designed by SFU researchers consists of a microscopic particle immersed in water and attached to a spring which, itself, is fixed to a movable stage. Researchers then observe the particle bouncing up and down due to thermal motion. “When we see an upward bounce, we move the stage up in response,” explains lead author and PhD student Tushar Saha. “When we see a downward bounce, we wait. This ends up lifting the entire system using only information about the particle’s position.” “Guided by this insight, we picked the particle mass and other engine properties to maximize how fast the engine extracts energy, outperforming previous designs and achieving power comparable to molecular machinery in living cells, and speeds comparable to fast-swimming bacteria,” says postdoctoral fellow Jannik Ehrich. https://www.sfu.ca/university-communications/issues-experts/2021/05/world-s-fastest-information-fuelled-engine-designed-by-sfu-resea.html
bornagain77
October 30, 2021
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VL, hoping, (for whatever severely misguided nihilistic reason), to salvage his/her atheistic belief that an 'observer' is not necessary to explain why life is so far out of thermodynamic equilibrium,
Biophysics – Information theory. Relation between information and entropy: - Setlow-Pollard, Ed. Addison Wesley Excerpt: Linschitz gave the figure 9.3 x 10^12 cal/deg or 9.3 x 10^12 x 4.2 joules/deg for the entropy of a bacterial cell. Using the relation H = S/(k In 2), we find that the information content is 4 x 10^12 bits. Morowitz' deduction from the work of Bayne-Jones and Rhees gives the lower value of 5.6 x 10^11 bits, which is still in the neighborhood of 10^12 bits. Thus two quite different approaches give rather concordant figures. http://www.astroscu.unam.mx/~angel/tsb/molecular.htm of note per Carl Sagan, 10^12 bits is equivalent to 100 million pages of the Encyclopedia Britannica
VL, hoping, (for whatever severely misguided nihilistic reason), to salvage his/her atheistic belief that an 'observer' is not necessary to explain why life is so far out of thermodynamic equilibrium, points to this quote in my referenced article, “The findings revealed that, as Landauer put it, “Information is physical.”, and VL also tries to claim "I think this supports the quote I offered in #5 above." Here is the full context of the Landauer quote from my referenced article:
In other words, as the demon organizes the gas into hot and cold and lowers the gas’s entropy, its brain burns energy and generates more than enough entropy to compensate. The overall entropy of the gas-demon system increases, satisfying the second law of thermodynamics. The findings revealed that, as Landauer put it, “Information is physical.” The more information you have, the more work you can extract. Maxwell’s demon can wring work out of a single-temperature gas because it has far more information than the average user.
This “Information is physical” quote by Landauer needs to be explained in even fuller context. When I first learned about Landauer's principle, I was surprised to learn that, counter-intuitive to materialistic thought (and counterintuitive to every kid who has ever taken a math exam), a computer does not consume energy during actual computation but will only consume energy when information is erased from it,,, such as what happens when a computer's memory is cleared, or with the merging of two computation paths where you put in two bits into a logical operation and you only get one bit out.
Landauer's principle Of Note: "any logically irreversible manipulation of information, such as the erasure of a bit or the merging of two computation paths, must be accompanied by a corresponding entropy increase ,,, Specifically, each bit of lost information will lead to the release of an (specific) amount (at least kT ln 2) of heat.,,,”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landauer%27s_principle Rolf Landauer (1927-1999) Excerpt: “Logically irreversible devices do not remember the inputs. They are thus one-way processes that lose information. Logically irreversible devices are necessary to computing, says Landauer, and logical irreversibility implies physical irreversibility.” http://www.informationphilosopher.com/solutions/scientists/landauer/
For me personally, when I first realized that it took energy to erase information from a computer, and yet no energy was consumed during computation itself, then that implied, for me at least, that information must be physically real and independent of matter and energy since it took energy to erase information from the computer. After all, if you want to move a car you need to supply energy. And thus, why should any energy at all be expended by the computer unless real work is being performed on a physically real entity that is separate from matter and energy when it erases information from a computer? Yet, even though it was a counter-intuitive surprise for me to learn that a computer will not consume any energy while it is supposedly ‘working’ during its computation, but will only consume energy during the erasure of its information, it should be noted that Rolf Landauer himself maintained that the information in a computer is ‘physical’.
“Information is Physical” - 1991 Rolf Landauer (February 4, 1927 – April 28, 1999) http://physicstoday.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.881299
Again, when I first heard that Landauer said 'Information is Physical', I first thought that Landauer was directly implying that information is a physically real entity and therefore independent of matter and energy. Yet on closer examination I found out that my first impression of what Landauer actually meant by his statement 'Information is Physical' was wrong. Landauer was actually implying that information is physical simply because it is inevitably inscribed on a physical medium. In fact Landauer even went so far as to say that Roger Penrose's contention that information has an existence independent of matter and energy was a quote unquote 'quaint notion'.
Information is a Physical Entity - Rolf Landauer Excerpt: Information is inevitably inscribed in a physical medium. It is not an abstract entity. It can be denoted by a hole in a punched card, by the orientation of a nuclear spin, or by the pulses transmitted by a neuron. The quaint notion that information has an existence independent of its physical manifestation is still seriously advocated [6],,, [6] R. Penrose, The Emperor's New Mind, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.192.2928&rep=rep1&type=pdf "Those devices (computers) can yield only approximations to a structure (of information) that has a deep and "computer independent" existence of its own." - Roger Penrose - The Emperor's New Mind - Pg 147 “The mechanical brain does not secrete thought “as the liver does bile,” as the earlier materialists claimed, nor does it put it out in the form of energy, as the muscle puts out its activity. Information is information, not matter or energy. No materialism which does not admit this can survive at the present day. “ Norbert Weiner - MIT Mathematician - (Cybernetics, 2nd edition, p.132) http://www.informationphilosopher.com/solutions/scientists/wiener/
bornagain77
October 30, 2021
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Renner has reached some interesting conclusions about human beings using quantum theory:
Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself Daniela Frauchiger, Renato Renner Quantum theory provides an extremely accurate description of fundamental processes in physics. It thus seems likely that the theory is applicable beyond the, mostly microscopic, domain in which it has been tested experimentally. Here we propose a Gedankenexperiment to investigate the question whether quantum theory can, in principle, have universal validity. The idea is that, if the answer was yes, it must be possible to employ quantum theory to model complex systems that include agents who are themselves using quantum theory. Analysing the experiment under this presumption, we find that one agent, upon observing a particular measurement outcome, must conclude that another agent has predicted the opposite outcome with certainty. The agents' conclusions, although all derived within quantum theory, are thus inconsistent. This indicates that quantum theory cannot be extrapolated to complex systems, at least not in a straightforward manner.
Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itselfViola Lee
October 29, 2021
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Interesting article. However, after a number of paragraphs the article says, "Understanding entropy as a subjective measure allows the universe as a whole to evolve without ever losing information.", but I don't see anything in what precedes that sentence that explains why entropy is a subjective measure. Can you point to where in the article it supports that statement, I wonder? Also, this quote is interesting: "The findings revealed that, as Landauer put it, “Information is physical.”" I think this supports the quote I offered in #5 above.Viola Lee
October 29, 2021
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Thermodynamics cannot account for coded information processing systems. That is just the last desperate hope for a desperate people.ET
October 29, 2021
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Well VL, via experimental realization of the Maxwell's demon thought experiment, the 'positional information' needed to explain life, or more specifically, needed to explain why life is so far out of thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, is found to be not "a property of a system, but a property of an observer who describes a system.”,,,
The Quantum Thermodynamics Revolution – May 2017 Excerpt: the 19th-century physicist James Clerk Maxwell put it, “The idea of dissipation of energy depends on the extent of our knowledge.” In recent years, a revolutionary understanding of thermodynamics has emerged that explains this subjectivity using quantum information theory — “a toddler among physical theories,” as del Rio and co-authors put it, that describes the spread of information through quantum systems. Just as thermodynamics initially grew out of trying to improve steam engines, today’s thermodynamicists are mulling over the workings of quantum machines. Shrinking technology — a single-ion engine and three-atom fridge were both experimentally realized for the first time within the past year — is forcing them to extend thermodynamics to the quantum realm, where notions like temperature and work lose their usual meanings, and the classical laws don’t necessarily apply. They’ve found new, quantum versions of the laws that scale up to the originals. Rewriting the theory from the bottom up has led experts to recast its basic concepts in terms of its subjective nature, and to unravel the deep and often surprising relationship between energy and information — the abstract 1s and 0s by which physical states are distinguished and knowledge is measured.,,, Renato Renner, a professor at ETH Zurich in Switzerland, described this as a radical shift in perspective. Fifteen years ago, “we thought of entropy as a property of a thermodynamic system,” he said. “Now in (quantum) information theory, we wouldn’t say entropy is a property of a system, but a property of an observer who describes a system.”,,, https://www.quantamagazine.org/quantum-thermodynamics-revolution/
To repeat that last statement, “Now in (quantum) information theory, we wouldn’t say entropy is a property of a system, but a property of an observer who describes a system.”,,,bornagain77
October 29, 2021
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Maybe I’m not using it right but I did some searches and got some interesting results for a topic I am familiar with. It was missing the most obvious studies and was very limited but had things I was unaware of.jerry
October 29, 2021
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Did you find anything interesting in the article, BA, or anything with which you might agree? I'll note this: [emphasis mine]
This past November, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists came together with evolutionary and molecular biologists to talk—and sometimes argue—about these ideas at a workshop at the Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico, the mecca for the science of “complex systems.” They asked: Just how special (or not) is biology? It’s hardly surprising that there was no consensus.But one message that emerged very clearly was that, if there’s a kind of physics behind biological teleology and agency, it has something to do with the same concept that seems to have become installed at the heart of fundamental physics itself: information.
I would think you would like the mention of the primacy of information, but maybe not the idea that biological teleology and agency arose from principles present in fundamental physics itself. Anyway, food for thought, and a well-done article, I think.Viola Lee
October 29, 2021
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There’s something unique about life that no one has discovered. It’s not just putting the right ingredients together in the right environment. There’s some kind of energizing factor. The most likely scenario for life to arise is if all the necessary ingredients are available in one place and this exists. What better source for life to arise than a dead cell. Every possible ingredient is there. But yet no life has ever arisen from a dead cell. Some unknown factor is missingjerry
October 29, 2021
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VL, you might want to look at this,,,
England, Davies: Honesty, if Not Agreement, on the Origin of Life Brian Miller - July 1, 2021 Excerpt: Two Enlightening Moments Two moments in the conversation particularly stood out. The first one occurred after England explained his conjecture that the flow of energy through a chemical system could cause it to self-organize in such a way as to move toward life, including the generation of the required biological information. Brierley referenced my critique that such a fortuitous scenario might seem possible in principle, but it is implausible in practice. He also commented that such proposals naturally lead one to “anthropomorphize the process” where one speaks as if nature wants to direct simple chemicals to move toward life. Previously, I detailed how theoretical and experimental evidence demonstrates that natural processes always move chemical systems in the exact opposite direction (here, here). England responded by stating that the tendency to treat life as somehow a special arrangement of matter defined by meaningful biological information represents our inherent bias, resulting from our familiarity with life’s current characteristics and forms. Instead, “one person’s information is another person’s noise.” In other words, the early forms of nascent cells might appear to us as much more mundane arrangements of molecules. Yet, this assertion completely conflicts with studies of minimally complex cells examined in the light of studies on minimally complex self-replicating machines. The confluence of these two streams of research demonstrates that the simplest possible cell that would not spontaneously decompose into simpler molecules must contain the following components: Machinery for energy production and delivery Information repositories and processors Selective gateways with active transport Sensors coupled to signal transduction pathways and signal processing Actuators that implement instructions Manufacturing and auto assembly processes Automated repair machinery Waste disposal and recycling mechanisms Control systems capable of global coordination These features directly parallel human engineering, but they must be performed in life at a much higher level of ingenuity and efficiency. The underlying information is easily distinguishable from noise or anything that could ever be generated by any physical process. https://evolutionnews.org/2021/07/england-davies-honesty-if-not-agreement-on-the-origin-of-life/ More articles debunking England's ideas are found here: https://evolutionnews.org/tag/jeremy-england/
bornagain77
October 29, 2021
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Looking for a place to post this: thought some of you might be interested. How Life (and Death) Spring From Disorder As simple systems show signs of life, scientists are arguing about whether this apparent complexity is all a consequence of thermodynamics.Viola Lee
October 29, 2021
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Scientists are supposed to glean insights by observing Nature and doing experiments, not by Ctrl-C and Ctrl-V.polistra
October 28, 2021
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