Readers may remember the recent ENCODE findings, which showed that junk DNA is much less common in the genome than Darwin’s defenders (who use it as an important argument for their theory) like. Readers may also remember the attack on ENCODE by Darwin’s defenders. Now here is a response:
On the concept of biological function, junk DNA and the gospels of ENCODE and Graur et al.
Claudiu I. Bandea
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Submitted to BioRxiv on November 18, 2013
Abstract: In a recent article entitled “On the immortality of television sets: “function” in the human genome according to the evolution-free gospel of ENCODE”, Graur et al. dismantle ENCODE’s evidence and conclusion that 80% of the human genome is functional. However, the article by Graur et al. contains assumptions and statements that are questionable. Primarily, the authors limit their evaluation of DNA’s biological functions to informational roles, sidestepping putative non-informational functions. Here, I bring forward an old hypothesis on the evolution of genome size and on the role of so called ‘junk DNA’ (jDNA), which might explain C-value enigma. According to this hypothesis, the jDNA functions as a defense mechanism against insertion mutagenesis by endogenous and exogenous inserting elements such as retroviruses, thereby protecting informational DNA sequences from inactivation or alteration of their expression. Notably, this model couples the mechanisms and the selective forces responsible for the origin of jDNA with its putative protective biological function, which represents a classic example of ‘fighting fire with fire.’ One of the key tenets of this theory is that in humans and many other species, jDNAs serves as a protective mechanism against insertional oncogenic transformation. As an adaptive defense mechanism, the amount of protective DNA varies from one species to another based on the rate of its origin, insertional mutagenesis activity, and evolutionary constraints on genome size.
Hat tip: Pos-Darwinista